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The preload attribute is intended to provide a hint to the user agent about what the author thinks will lead to the best user experience.

The attribute may be ignored altogether, for example based on explicit user preferences or based on the available connectivity. The preload IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name, limited to only known values.

The autoplay attribute can override the preload attribute since if the media plays, it naturally has to buffer first, regardless of the hint given by the preload attribute.

Including both is not an error, however. Returns a TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource that the user agent has buffered.

The buffered attribute must return a new static normalized TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource , if any, that the user agent has buffered, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

Users agents must accurately determine the ranges available, even for media streams where this can only be determined by tedious inspection.

Typically this will be a single range anchored at the zero point, but if, e. Thus, a time position included within a range of the objects return by the buffered attribute at one time can end up being not included in the range s of objects returned by the same attribute at later times.

Returning a new object each time is a bad pattern for attribute getters and is only enshrined here as it would be costly to change it.

It is not to be copied to new APIs. Returns the length of the media resource , in seconds, assuming that the start of the media resource is at time zero.

Returns the official playback position , in seconds. A media resource has a media timeline that maps times in seconds to positions in the media resource.

The origin of a timeline is its earliest defined position. The duration of a timeline is its last defined position. Establishing the media timeline : if the media resource somehow specifies an explicit timeline whose origin is not negative i.

Whether the media resource can specify a timeline or not depends on the media resource's format. If the media resource specifies an explicit start time and date , then that time and date should be considered the zero point in the media timeline ; the timeline offset will be the time and date, exposed using the getStartDate method.

If the media resource has a discontinuous timeline, the user agent must extend the timeline used at the start of the resource across the entire resource, so that the media timeline of the media resource increases linearly starting from the earliest possible position as defined below , even if the underlying media data has out-of-order or even overlapping time codes.

For example, if two clips have been concatenated into one video file, but the video format exposes the original times for the two clips, the video data might expose a timeline that goes, say, However, the user agent would not expose those times; it would instead expose the times as In the rare case of a media resource that does not have an explicit timeline, the zero time on the media timeline should correspond to the first frame of the media resource.

In the even rarer case of a media resource with no explicit timings of any kind, not even frame durations, the user agent must itself determine the time for each frame in an implementation-defined manner.

An example of a file format with no explicit timeline but with explicit frame durations is the Animated GIF format. If, in the case of a resource with no timing information, the user agent will nonetheless be able to seek to an earlier point than the first frame originally provided by the server, then the zero time should correspond to the earliest seekable time of the media resource ; otherwise, it should correspond to the first frame received from the server the point in the media resource at which the user agent began receiving the stream.

At the time of writing, there is no known format that lacks explicit frame time offsets yet still supports seeking to a frame before the first frame sent by the server.

Consider a stream from a TV broadcaster, which begins streaming on a sunny Friday afternoon in October, and always sends connecting user agents the media data on the same media timeline, with its zero time set to the start of this stream.

Months later, user agents connecting to this stream will find that the first frame they receive has a time with millions of seconds.

The getStartDate method would always return the date that the broadcast started; this would allow controllers to display real times in their scrubber e.

Consider a stream that carries a video with several concatenated fragments, broadcast by a server that does not allow user agents to request specific times but instead just streams the video data in a predetermined order, with the first frame delivered always being identified as the frame with time zero.

If a user agent connects to this stream and receives fragments defined as covering timestamps UTC to UTC and UTC to UTC, it would expose this with a media timeline starting at 0s and extending to 3,s one hour.

Assuming the streaming server disconnected at the end of the second clip, the duration attribute would then return 3, However, if a different user agent connected five minutes later, it would presumably receive fragments covering timestamps UTC to UTC and UTC to UTC, and would expose this with a media timeline starting at 0s and extending to 3,s fifty five minutes.

In this case, the getStartDate method would return a Date object with a time corresponding to UTC. In both of these examples, the seekable attribute would give the ranges that the controller would want to actually display in its UI; typically, if the servers don't support seeking to arbitrary times, this would be the range of time from the moment the user agent connected to the stream up to the latest frame that the user agent has obtained; however, if the user agent starts discarding earlier information, the actual range might be shorter.

In any case, the user agent must ensure that the earliest possible position as defined below using the established media timeline , is greater than or equal to zero.

The media timeline also has an associated clock. Which clock is used is user-agent defined, and may be media resource -dependent, but it should approximate the user's wall clock.

Media elements have a current playback position , which must initially i. The current playback position is a time on the media timeline.

Media elements also have an official playback position , which must initially be set to zero seconds. The official playback position is an approximation of the current playback position that is kept stable while scripts are running.

Media elements also have a default playback start position , which must initially be set to zero seconds. This time is used to allow the element to be seeked even before the media is loaded.

Each media element has a show poster flag. When a media element is created, this flag must be set to true. This flag is used to control when the user agent is to show a poster frame for a video element instead of showing the video contents.

The returned value must be expressed in seconds. The new value must be interpreted as being in seconds.

If the media resource is a streaming resource, then the user agent might be unable to obtain certain parts of the resource after it has expired from its buffer.

Similarly, some media resources might have a media timeline that doesn't start at zero. The earliest possible position is the earliest position in the stream or resource that the user agent can ever obtain again.

It is also a time on the media timeline. The earliest possible position is not explicitly exposed in the API; it corresponds to the start time of the first range in the seekable attribute's TimeRanges object, if any, or the current playback position otherwise.

When the earliest possible position changes, then: if the current playback position is before the earliest possible position , the user agent must seek to the earliest possible position ; otherwise, if the user agent has not fired a timeupdate event at the element in the past 15 to ms and is not still running event handlers for such an event, then the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

Because of the above requirement and the requirement in the resource fetch algorithm that kicks in when the metadata of the clip becomes known , the current playback position can never be less than the earliest possible position.

If at any time the user agent learns that an audio or video track has ended and all media data relating to that track corresponds to parts of the media timeline that are before the earliest possible position , the user agent may queue a media element task given the media element to run these steps:.

Fire an event named removetrack at the media element 's aforementioned AudioTrackList or VideoTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the AudioTrack or VideoTrack object representing the track.

If no media data is available, then the attributes must return the Not-a-Number NaN value. If the media resource is not known to be bounded e.

When the length of the media resource changes to a known value e. The event is not fired when the duration is reset as part of loading a new media resource.

If the duration is changed such that the current playback position ends up being greater than the time of the end of the media resource , then the user agent must also seek to the time of the end of the media resource.

If an "infinite" stream ends for some reason, then the duration would change from positive Infinity to the time of the last frame or sample in the stream, and the durationchange event would be fired.

Similarly, if the user agent initially estimated the media resource 's duration instead of determining it precisely, and later revises the estimate based on new information, then the duration would change and the durationchange event would be fired.

Some video files also have an explicit date and time corresponding to the zero time in the media timeline , known as the timeline offset.

Initially, the timeline offset must be set to Not-a-Number NaN. The getStartDate method must return a new Date object representing the current timeline offset.

The loop attribute is a boolean attribute that, if specified, indicates that the media element is to seek back to the start of the media resource upon reaching the end.

The loop IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name. Returns a value that expresses the current state of the element with respect to rendering the current playback position , from the codes in the list below.

Media elements have a ready state , which describes to what degree they are ready to be rendered at the current playback position.

The possible values are as follows; the ready state of a media element at any particular time is the greatest value describing the state of the element:.

No information regarding the media resource is available. No data for the current playback position is available. In the case of a video element, the dimensions of the video are also available.

No media data is available for the immediate current playback position. For example, in video this corresponds to the user agent having data from the current frame, but not the next frame, when the current playback position is at the end of the current frame; and to when playback has ended.

For example, in video this corresponds to the user agent having data for at least the current frame and the next frame when the current playback position is at the instant in time between the two frames, or to the user agent having the video data for the current frame and audio data to keep playing at least a little when the current playback position is in the middle of a frame.

The user agent cannot be in this state if playback has ended , as the current playback position can never advance in this case.

The only time that distinction really matters is when a page provides an interface for "frame-by-frame" navigation. Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named loadedmetadata at the element.

Before this task is run, as part of the event loop mechanism, the rendering will have been updated to resize the video element if appropriate.

If this is the first time this occurs for this media element since the load algorithm was last invoked, the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named loadeddata at the element.

The user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named canplay at the element. If the element's paused attribute is false, the user agent must notify about playing for the element.

The user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named canplaythrough at the element.

If the element is not eligible for autoplay , then the user agent must abort these substeps. Alternatively, if the element is a video element, the user agent may start observing whether the element intersects the viewport.

When the element starts intersecting the viewport , if the element is still eligible for autoplay , run the substeps above. Optionally, when the element stops intersecting the viewport , if the can autoplay flag is still true and the autoplay attribute is still specified, run the following substeps:.

The substeps for playing and pausing can run multiple times as the element starts or stops intersecting the viewport , as long as the can autoplay flag is true.

User agents do not need to support autoplay, and it is suggested that user agents honor user preferences on the matter. Authors are urged to use the autoplay attribute rather than using script to force the video to play, so as to allow the user to override the behavior if so desired.

It is possible for the ready state of a media element to jump between these states discontinuously. The autoplay attribute is a boolean attribute.

When present, the user agent as described in the algorithm described herein will automatically begin playback of the media resource as soon as it can do so without stopping.

Authors are urged to use the autoplay attribute rather than using script to trigger automatic playback, as this allows the user to override the automatic playback when it is not desired, e.

Authors are also encouraged to consider not using the automatic playback behavior at all, and instead to let the user agent wait for the user to start playback explicitly.

Returns true if playback has reached the end of the media resource. Returns the default rate of playback, for when the user is not fast-forwarding or reversing through the media resource.

The default rate has no direct effect on playback, but if the user switches to a fast-forward mode, when they return to the normal playback mode, it is expected that the rate of playback will be returned to the default rate of playback.

Returns true if pitch-preserving algorithms are used when the playbackRate is not 1. The default value is true. Can be set to false to have the media resource 's audio pitch change up or down depending on the playbackRate.

This is useful for aesthetic and performance reasons. Returns a TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource that the user agent has played.

Sets the paused attribute to false, loading the media resource and beginning playback if necessary. If the playback had ended, will restart it from the start.

Sets the paused attribute to true, loading the media resource if necessary. The attribute must initially be true. A media element is said to be potentially playing when its paused attribute is false, the element has not ended playback , playback has not stopped due to errors , and the element is not a blocked media element.

A media element is said to be eligible for autoplay when all of the following conditions are met:. A media element is said to be allowed to play if the user agent and the system allow media playback in the current context.

For example, a user agent could allow playback only when the media element 's Window object has transient activation , but an exception could be made to allow playback while muted.

A media element is said to have ended playback when:. Either: The current playback position is the end of the media resource , and The direction of playback is forwards, and The media element does not have a loop attribute specified.

Or: The current playback position is the earliest possible position , and The direction of playback is backwards. It is possible for a media element to have both ended playback and paused for user interaction at the same time.

When a media element that is potentially playing stops playing because it has paused for user interaction , the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

One example of when a media element would be paused for in-band content is when the user agent is playing audio descriptions from an external WebVTT file, and the synthesized speech generated for a cue is longer than the time between the text track cue start time and the text track cue end time.

When the current playback position reaches the end of the media resource when the direction of playback is forwards, then the user agent must follow these steps:.

If the media element has a loop attribute specified, then seek to the earliest possible position of the media resource and return. As defined above, the ended IDL attribute starts returning true once the event loop returns to step 1.

Queue a media element task given the media element and the following steps:. Fire an event named timeupdate at the media element. If the media element has ended playback , the direction of playback is forwards, and paused is false, then:.

Fire an event named pause at the media element. Fire an event named ended at the media element. When the current playback position reaches the earliest possible position of the media resource when the direction of playback is backwards, then the user agent must only queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

The word "reaches" here does not imply that the current playback position needs to have changed during normal playback; it could be via seeking , for instance.

The defaultPlaybackRate attribute gives the desired speed at which the media resource is to play, as a multiple of its intrinsic speed.

The attribute is mutable: on getting it must return the last value it was set to, or 1. The defaultPlaybackRate is used by the user agent when it exposes a user interface to the user.

The playbackRate attribute gives the effective playback rate, which is the speed at which the media resource plays, as a multiple of its intrinsic speed.

If it is not equal to the defaultPlaybackRate , then the implication is that the user is using a feature such as fast forward or slow motion playback.

Set playbackRate to the new value, and if the element is potentially playing , change the playback speed. When the defaultPlaybackRate or playbackRate attributes change value either by being set by script or by being changed directly by the user agent, e.

The user agent must process attribute changes smoothly and must not introduce any perceivable gaps or muting of playback in response.

The preservesPitch getter steps are to return true if a pitch-preserving algorithm is in effect during playback. The setter steps are to correspondingly switch the pitch-preserving algorithm on or off, without any perceivable gaps or muting of playback.

By default, such a pitch-preserving algorithm must be in effect i. The played attribute must return a new static normalized TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of points on the media timeline of the media resource reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, if any, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

Each media element has a list of pending play promises , which must initially be empty. To take pending play promises for a media element , the user agent must run the following steps:.

Let promises be an empty list of promises. Copy the media element 's list of pending play promises to promises. Clear the media element 's list of pending play promises.

Return promises. To resolve pending play promises for a media element with a list of promises promises , the user agent must resolve each promise in promises with undefined.

To reject pending play promises for a media element with a list of promise promises and an exception name error , the user agent must reject each promise in promises with error.

To notify about playing for a media element , the user agent must run the following steps:. Take pending play promises and let promises be the result.

Queue a media element task given the element and the following steps:. Fire an event named playing at the element.

Resolve pending play promises with promises. This means that the dedicated media source failure steps have run. Playback is not possible until the media element load algorithm clears the error attribute.

Let promise be a new promise and append promise to the list of pending play promises. Run the internal play steps for the media element.

Return promise. The internal play steps for a media element are as follows:. If the playback has ended and the direction of playback is forwards, seek to the earliest possible position of the media resource.

This will cause the user agent to queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the media element. If the media element 's paused attribute is true, then:.

Change the value of paused to false. If the show poster flag is true, set the element's show poster flag to false and run the time marches on steps.

Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named play at the element. The media element is already playing.

However, it's possible that promise will be rejected before the queued task is run. Set the media element 's can autoplay flag to false. Run the internal pause steps for the media element.

The internal pause steps for a media element are as follows:. If the media element 's paused attribute is false, run the following steps:.

Change the value of paused to true. Queue a media element task on the given the media element and the following steps:.

Fire an event named timeupdate at the element. Fire an event named pause at the element. Set the official playback position to the current playback position.

If the element's playbackRate is positive or zero, then the direction of playback is forwards. Otherwise, it is backwards.

When a media element is potentially playing and its Document is a fully active Document , its current playback position must increase monotonically at the element's playbackRate units of media time per unit time of the media timeline 's clock.

This specification always refers to this as an increase , but that increase could actually be a de crease if the element's playbackRate is negative.

The element's playbackRate can be 0. This specification doesn't define how the user agent achieves the appropriate playback rate — depending on the protocol and media available, it is plausible that the user agent could negotiate with the server to have the server provide the media data at the appropriate rate, so that except for the period between when the rate is changed and when the server updates the stream's playback rate the client doesn't actually have to drop or interpolate any frames.

Any time the user agent provides a stable state , the official playback position must be set to the current playback position.

While the direction of playback is backwards, any corresponding audio must be muted. While the element's playbackRate is so low or so high that the user agent cannot play audio usefully, the corresponding audio must also be muted.

If the element's playbackRate is not 1. Otherwise, the user agent must speed up or slow down the audio without any pitch adjustment.

When a media element is potentially playing , its audio data played must be synchronized with the current playback position , at the element's effective media volume.

When a media element is not potentially playing , audio must not play for the element. Media elements that are potentially playing while not in a document must not play any video, but should play any audio component.

Media elements must not stop playing just because all references to them have been removed; only once a media element is in a state where no further audio could ever be played by that element may the element be garbage collected.

It is possible for an element to which no explicit references exist to play audio, even if such an element is not still actively playing: for instance, it could be unpaused but stalled waiting for content to buffer, or it could be still buffering, but with a suspend event listener that begins playback.

Even a media element whose media resource has no audio tracks could eventually play audio again if it had an event listener that changes the media resource.

Each media element has a list of newly introduced cues , which must be initially empty. Whenever a text track cue is added to the list of cues of a text track that is in the list of text tracks for a media element , that cue must be added to the media element 's list of newly introduced cues.

Whenever a text track is added to the list of text tracks for a media element , all of the cues in that text track 's list of cues must be added to the media element 's list of newly introduced cues.

When a media element 's list of newly introduced cues has new cues added while the media element 's show poster flag is not set, then the user agent must run the time marches on steps.

When a text track cue is removed from the list of cues of a text track that is in the list of text tracks for a media element , and whenever a text track is removed from the list of text tracks of a media element , if the media element 's show poster flag is not set, then the user agent must run the time marches on steps.

When the current playback position of a media element changes e. To support use cases that depend on the timing accuracy of cue event firing, such as synchronizing captions with shot changes in a video, user agents should fire cue events as close as possible to their position on the media timeline, and ideally within 20 milliseconds.

If the current playback position changes while the steps are running, then the user agent must wait for the steps to complete, and then must immediately rerun the steps.

These steps are thus run as often as possible or needed. If one iteration takes a long time, this can cause short duration cues to be skipped over as the user agent rushes ahead to "catch up", so these cues will not appear in the activeCues list.

Let current cues be a list of cues , initialized to contain all the cues of all the hidden or showing text tracks of the media element not the disabled ones whose start times are less than or equal to the current playback position and whose end times are greater than the current playback position.

Let other cues be a list of cues , initialized to contain all the cues of hidden and showing text tracks of the media element that are not present in current cues.

Let last time be the current playback position at the time this algorithm was last run for this media element , if this is not the first time it has run.

If the current playback position has, since the last time this algorithm was run, only changed through its usual monotonic increase during normal playback, then let missed cues be the list of cues in other cues whose start times are greater than or equal to last time and whose end times are less than or equal to the current playback position.

Otherwise, let missed cues be an empty list. Remove all the cues in missed cues that are also in the media element 's list of newly introduced cues , and then empty the element's list of newly introduced cues.

If the time was reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, and if the user agent has not fired a timeupdate event at the element in the past 15 to ms and is not still running event handlers for such an event, then the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, relevant events get fired as part of the overall process of changing the current playback position.

The event thus is not to be fired faster than about 66Hz or slower than 4Hz assuming the event handlers don't take longer than ms to run.

User agents are encouraged to vary the frequency of the event based on the system load and the average cost of processing the event each time, so that the UI updates are not any more frequent than the user agent can comfortably handle while decoding the video.

If all of the cues in current cues have their text track cue active flag set, none of the cues in other cues have their text track cue active flag set, and missed cues is empty, then return.

If the time was reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, and there are cues in other cues that have their text track cue pause-on-exit flag set and that either have their text track cue active flag set or are also in missed cues , then immediately pause the media element.

In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, playback is not paused by going past the end time of a cue , even if that cue has its text track cue pause-on-exit flag set.

Let events be a list of tasks , initially empty. Each task in this list will be associated with a text track , a text track cue , and a time, which are used to sort the list before the tasks are queued.

Let affected tracks be a list of text tracks , initially empty. When the steps below say to prepare an event named event for a text track cue target with a time time , the user agent must run these steps:.

Let track be the text track with which the text track cue target is associated. Create a task to fire an event named event at target. Add the newly created task to events , associated with the time time , the text track track , and the text track cue target.

Add track to affected tracks. For each text track cue in missed cues , prepare an event named enter for the TextTrackCue object with the text track cue start time.

For each text track cue in other cues that either has its text track cue active flag set or is in missed cues , prepare an event named exit for the TextTrackCue object with the later of the text track cue end time and the text track cue start time.

For each text track cue in current cues that does not have its text track cue active flag set, prepare an event named enter for the TextTrackCue object with the text track cue start time.

Sort the tasks in events in ascending time order tasks with earlier times first. Further sort tasks in events that have the same time by the relative text track cue order of the text track cues associated with these tasks.

Finally, sort tasks in events that have the same time and same text track cue order by placing tasks that fire enter events before those that fire exit events.

Queue a media element task given the media element for each task in events , in list order. Sort affected tracks in the same order as the text tracks appear in the media element 's list of text tracks , and remove duplicates.

For each text track in affected tracks , in the list order, queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named cuechange at the TextTrack object, and, if the text track has a corresponding track element, to then fire an event named cuechange at the track element as well.

Set the text track cue active flag of all the cues in the current cues , and unset the text track cue active flag of all the cues in the other cues.

Run the rules for updating the text track rendering of each of the text tracks in affected tracks that are showing , providing the text track 's text track language as the fallback language if it is not the empty string.

If the media element 's node document stops being a fully active document, then the playback will stop until the document is active again.

When a media element is removed from a Document , the user agent must run the following steps:. Await a stable state , allowing the task that removed the media element from the Document to continue.

The synchronous section consists of all the remaining steps of this algorithm. Returns a TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource to which it is possible for the user agent to seek.

Seeks to near the given time as fast as possible, trading precision for speed. To seek to a precise time, use the currentTime attribute.

The seeking attribute must initially have the value false. Chrome Android? WebView Android? Samsung Internet? Opera Android?

The fastSeek method must seek to the time given by the method's argument, with the approximate-for-speed flag set. When the user agent is required to seek to a particular new playback position in the media resource , optionally with the approximate-for-speed flag set, it means that the user agent must run the following steps.

This algorithm interacts closely with the event loop mechanism; in particular, it has a synchronous section which is triggered as part of the event loop algorithm.

Set the media element 's show poster flag to false. If the element's seeking IDL attribute is true, then another instance of this algorithm is already running.

Abort that other instance of the algorithm without waiting for the step that it is running to complete.

Set the seeking IDL attribute to true. The remainder of these steps must be run in parallel. If the new playback position is later than the end of the media resource , then let it be the end of the media resource instead.

If the new playback position is less than the earliest possible position , let it be that position instead. If the possibly now changed new playback position is not in one of the ranges given in the seekable attribute, then let it be the position in one of the ranges given in the seekable attribute that is the nearest to the new playback position.

If two positions both satisfy that constraint i. If there are no ranges given in the seekable attribute then set the seeking IDL attribute to false and return.

If the approximate-for-speed flag is set, adjust the new playback position to a value that will allow for playback to resume promptly.

If new playback position before this step is before current playback position , then the adjusted new playback position must also be before the current playback position.

Similarly, if the new playback position before this step is after current playback position , then the adjusted new playback position must also be after the current playback position.

For example, the user agent could snap to a nearby key frame, so that it doesn't have to spend time decoding then discarding intermediate frames before resuming playback.

Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named seeking at the element.

Set the current playback position to the new playback position. This step sets the current playback position , and thus can immediately trigger other conditions, such as the rules regarding when playback " reaches the end of the media resource " part of the logic that handles looping , even before the user agent is actually able to render the media data for that position as determined in the next step.

The currentTime attribute returns the official playback position , not the current playback position , and therefore gets updated before script execution, separate from this algorithm.

Wait until the user agent has established whether or not the media data for the new playback position is available, and, if it is, until it has decoded enough data to play back that position.

The seekable attribute must return a new static normalized TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource , if any, that the user agent is able to seek to, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

If the user agent can seek to anywhere in the media resource , e. The range might be continuously changing, e. User agents should adopt a very liberal and optimistic view of what is seekable.

User agents should also buffer recent content where possible to enable seeking to be fast. A browser could implement this by only buffering the current frame and data obtained for subsequent frames, never allow seeking, except for seeking to the very start by restarting the playback.

However, this would be a poor implementation. A high quality implementation would buffer the last few minutes of content or more, if sufficient storage space is available , allowing the user to jump back and rewatch something surprising without any latency, and would in addition allow arbitrary seeking by reloading the file from the start if necessary, which would be slower but still more convenient than having to literally restart the video and watch it all the way through just to get to an earlier unbuffered spot.

Media resources might be internally scripted or interactive. Thus, a media element could play in a non-linear fashion. If this happens, the user agent must act as if the algorithm for seeking was used whenever the current playback position changes in a discontinuous fashion so that the relevant events fire.

A media resource can have multiple embedded audio and video tracks. For example, in addition to the primary video and audio tracks, a media resource could have foreign-language dubbed dialogues, director's commentaries, audio descriptions, alternative angles, or sign-language overlays.

Returns an AudioTrackList object representing the audio tracks available in the media resource. Returns a VideoTrackList object representing the video tracks available in the media resource.

There are only ever one AudioTrackList object and one VideoTrackList object per media element , even if another media resource is loaded into the element: the objects are reused.

The AudioTrack and VideoTrack objects are not, though. AudioTrackList Support in all current engines. Returns the specified AudioTrack or VideoTrack object.

Returns the AudioTrack or VideoTrack object with the given identifier, or null if no track has that identifier. Returns the ID of the given track.

This is the ID that can be used with a fragment if the format supports media fragment syntax , and that can be used with the getTrackById method.

Returns the category the given track falls into. The possible track categories are given below. Can be set, to change whether the track is enabled or not.

If multiple audio tracks are enabled simultaneously, they are mixed. Can be set, to change whether the track is selected or not.

Either zero or one video track is selected; selecting a new track while a previous one is selected will unselect the previous one.

An AudioTrackList object represents a dynamic list of zero or more audio tracks, of which zero or more can be enabled at a time. Each audio track is represented by an AudioTrack object.

A VideoTrackList object represents a dynamic list of zero or more video tracks, of which zero or one can be selected at a time.

Each video track is represented by a VideoTrack object. If the media resource is in a format that defines an order, then that order must be used; otherwise, the order must be the relative order in which the tracks are declared in the media resource.

The order used is called the natural order of the list. Each track in one of these objects thus has an index; the first has the index 0, and each subsequent track is numbered one higher than the previous one.

If a media resource dynamically adds or removes audio or video tracks, then the indices of the tracks will change dynamically. If the media resource changes entirely, then all the previous tracks will be removed and replaced with new tracks.

The supported property indices of AudioTrackList and VideoTrackList objects at any instant are the numbers from zero to the number of tracks represented by the respective object minus one, if any tracks are represented.

To determine the value of an indexed property for a given index index in an AudioTrackList or VideoTrackList object list , the user agent must return the AudioTrack or VideoTrack object that represents the index th track in list.

When no tracks match the given argument, the methods must return null. The AudioTrack and VideoTrack objects represent specific tracks of a media resource.

Each track can have an identifier, category, label, and language. These aspects of a track are permanent for the lifetime of the track; even if a track is removed from a media resource 's AudioTrackList or VideoTrackList objects, those aspects do not change.

In addition, AudioTrack objects can each be enabled or disabled; this is the audio track's enabled state. When an AudioTrack is created, its enabled state must be set to false disabled.

The resource fetch algorithm can override this. Similarly, a single VideoTrack object per VideoTrackList object can be selected, this is the video track's selection state.

When a VideoTrack is created, its selection state must be set to false not selected. If the media resource is in a format that supports media fragment syntax , the identifier returned for a particular track must be the same identifier that would enable the track if used as the name of a track in the track dimension of such a fragment.

For example, in Ogg files, this would be the Name header field of the track. The category of a track is the string given in the first column of the table below that is the most appropriate for the track based on the definitions in the table's second and third columns, as determined by the metadata included in the track in the media resource.

The cell in the third column of a row says what the category given in the cell in the first column of that row applies to; a category is only appropriate for an audio track if it applies to audio tracks, and a category is only appropriate for video tracks if it applies to video tracks.

Categories must only be returned for AudioTrack objects if they are appropriate for audio, and must only be returned for VideoTrack objects if they are appropriate for video.

For Ogg files, the Role header field of the track gives the relevant metadata. For WebM, only the FlagDefault element currently maps to a value.

If the user agent is not able to express that language as a BCP 47 language tag for example because the language information in the media resource 's format is a free-form string without a defined interpretation , then the method must return the empty string, as if the track had no language.

On setting, it must enable the track if the new value is true, and disable it otherwise. If the track is no longer in an AudioTrackList object, then the track being enabled or disabled has no effect beyond changing the value of the attribute on the AudioTrack object.

Whenever an audio track in an AudioTrackList that was disabled is enabled, and whenever one that was enabled is disabled, the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named change at the AudioTrackList object.

An audio track that has no data for a particular position on the media timeline , or that does not exist at that position, must be interpreted as being silent at that point on the timeline.

On setting, it must select the track if the new value is true, and unselect it otherwise. If the track is in a VideoTrackList , then all the other VideoTrack objects in that list must be unselected.

If the track is no longer in a VideoTrackList object, then the track being selected or unselected has no effect beyond changing the value of the attribute on the VideoTrack object.

Whenever a track in a VideoTrackList that was previously not selected is selected, and whenever the selected track in a VideoTrackList is unselected without a new track being selected in its stead, the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named change at the VideoTrackList object.

This task must be queued before the task that fires the resize event, if any. A video track that has no data for a particular position on the media timeline must be interpreted as being transparent black at that point on the timeline, with the same dimensions as the last frame before that position, or, if the position is before all the data for that track, the same dimensions as the first frame for that track.

A track that does not exist at all at the current position must be treated as if it existed but had no data. For instance, if a video has a track that is only introduced after one hour of playback, and the user selects that track then goes back to the start, then the user agent will act as if that track started at the start of the media resource but was simply transparent until one hour in.

The following are the event handlers and their corresponding event handler event types that must be supported, as event handler IDL attributes , by all objects implementing the AudioTrackList and VideoTrackList interfaces:.

The format of the fragment depends on the MIME type of the media resource. In this example, a video that uses a format that supports media fragment syntax is embedded in such a way that the alternative angles labeled "Alternative" are enabled instead of the default video track.

A media element can have a group of associated text tracks , known as the media element 's list of text tracks. The text tracks are sorted as follows:.

This decides how the track is handled by the user agent. The kind is represented by a string. The possible strings are:. The kind of track can change dynamically, in the case of a text track corresponding to a track element.

The label of a track can change dynamically, in the case of a text track corresponding to a track element. When a text track label is the empty string, the user agent should automatically generate an appropriate label from the text track's other properties e.

This automatically-generated label is not exposed in the API. This is a string extracted from the media resource specifically for in-band metadata tracks to enable such tracks to be dispatched to different scripts in the document.

For example, a traditional TV station broadcast streamed on the web and augmented with web-specific interactive features could include text tracks with metadata for ad targeting, trivia game data during game shows, player states during sports games, recipe information during food programs, and so forth.

As each program starts and ends, new tracks might be added or removed from the stream, and as each one is added, the user agent could bind them to dedicated script modules using the value of this attribute.

Other than for in-band metadata text tracks, the in-band metadata track dispatch type is the empty string.

How this value is populated for different media formats is described in steps to expose a media-resource-specific text track.

This is a string a BCP 47 language tag representing the language of the text track's cues. The language of a text track can change dynamically, in the case of a text track corresponding to a track element.

Indicates that the text track is loading and there have been no fatal errors encountered so far. Further cues might still be added to the track by the parser.

Indicates that the text track was enabled, but when the user agent attempted to obtain it, this failed in some way e. URL could not be parsed , network error, unknown text track format.

Some or all of the cues are likely missing and will not be obtained. The readiness state of a text track changes dynamically as the track is obtained.

Indicates that the text track is not active. Other than for the purposes of exposing the track in the DOM, the user agent is ignoring the text track.

No cues are active, no events are fired, and the user agent will not attempt to obtain the track's cues. Indicates that the text track is active, but that the user agent is not actively displaying the cues.

If no attempt has yet been made to obtain the track's cues, the user agent will perform such an attempt momentarily. The user agent is maintaining a list of which cues are active, and events are being fired accordingly.

Indicates that the text track is active. In addition, for text tracks whose kind is subtitles or captions , the cues are being overlaid on the video as appropriate; for text tracks whose kind is descriptions , the user agent is making the cues available to the user in a non-visual fashion; and for text tracks whose kind is chapters , the user agent is making available to the user a mechanism by which the user can navigate to any point in the media resource by selecting a cue.

A list of text track cues , along with rules for updating the text track rendering. The list of cues of a text track can change dynamically, either because the text track has not yet been loaded or is still loading , or due to DOM manipulation.

Each text track has a corresponding TextTrack object. Each media element has a list of pending text tracks , which must initially be empty, a blocked-on-parser flag, which must initially be false, and a did-perform-automatic-track-selection flag, which must also initially be false.

When the user agent is required to populate the list of pending text tracks of a media element , the user agent must add to the element's list of pending text tracks each text track in the element's list of text tracks whose text track mode is not disabled and whose text track readiness state is loading.

Whenever a track element's parent node changes, the user agent must remove the corresponding text track from any list of pending text tracks that it is in.

Whenever a text track 's text track readiness state changes to either loaded or failed to load , the user agent must remove it from any list of pending text tracks that it is in.

When a media element is created by an HTML parser or XML parser , the user agent must set the element's blocked-on-parser flag to true. When a media element is popped off the stack of open elements of an HTML parser or XML parser , the user agent must honor user preferences for automatic text track selection , populate the list of pending text tracks , and set the element's blocked-on-parser flag to false.

The text tracks of a media element are ready when both the element's list of pending text tracks is empty and the element's blocked-on-parser flag is false.

Each media element has a pending text track change notification flag , which must initially be unset. Whenever a text track that is in a media element 's list of text tracks has its text track mode change value, the user agent must run the following steps for the media element :.

If the media element 's pending text track change notification flag is set, return. Set the media element 's pending text track change notification flag.

Queue a media element task given the media element to run these steps:. Unset the media element 's pending text track change notification flag.

Fire an event named change at the media element 's textTracks attribute's TextTrackList object.

If the media element 's show poster flag is not set, run the time marches on steps. The task source for the tasks listed in this section is the DOM manipulation task source.

A text track cue is the unit of time-sensitive data in a text track , corresponding for instance for subtitles and captions to the text that appears at a particular time and disappears at another time.

Each text track cue consists of:. For each task in pending tasks that would resolve pending play promises or reject pending play promises , immediately resolve or reject those promises in the order the corresponding tasks were queued.

Remove each task in pending tasks from its task queue. Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named emptied at the media element.

If a fetching process is in progress for the media element , the user agent should stop it. If the media element 's assigned media provider object is a MediaSource object, then detach it.

Forget the media element's media-resource-specific tracks. If the paused attribute is false, then:. Set the paused attribute to true.

If seeking is true, set it to false. Set the current playback position to 0. Set the official playback position to 0.

If this changed the official playback position , then queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the media element.

Set the timeline offset to Not-a-Number NaN. Update the duration attribute to Not-a-Number NaN. The user agent will not fire a durationchange event for this particular change of the duration.

Set the playbackRate attribute to the value of the defaultPlaybackRate attribute. Set the error attribute to null and the can autoplay flag to true. Invoke the media element 's resource selection algorithm.

Playback of any previously playing media resource for this element stops. The resource selection algorithm for a media element is as follows. This algorithm is always invoked as part of a task , but one of the first steps in the algorithm is to return and continue running the remaining steps in parallel.

In addition, this algorithm interacts closely with the event loop mechanism; in particular, it has synchronous sections which are triggered as part of the event loop algorithm.

Set the element's show poster flag to true. Set the media element 's delaying-the-load-event flag to true this delays the load event. Await a stable state , allowing the task that invoked this algorithm to continue.

The synchronous section consists of all the remaining steps of this algorithm until the algorithm says the synchronous section has ended. This stops delaying the load event.

End the synchronous section and return. Run the appropriate steps from the following list:. End the synchronous section , continuing the remaining steps in parallel.

Run the resource fetch algorithm with the assigned media provider object. If that algorithm returns without aborting this one, then the load failed.

Failed with media provider : Reaching this step indicates that the media resource failed to load. Take pending play promises and queue a media element task given the media element to run the dedicated media source failure steps with the result.

Wait for the task queued by the previous step to have executed. The element won't attempt to load another resource until this algorithm is triggered again.

If urlRecord was obtained successfully, run the resource fetch algorithm with urlRecord. Failed with attribute : Reaching this step indicates that the media resource failed to load or that the given URL could not be parsed.

One node is the node before pointer , and the other node is the node after pointer. Initially, let pointer be the position between the candidate node and the next node, if there are any, or the end of the list, if it is the last node.

As nodes are inserted and removed into the media element , pointer must be updated as follows:. Run the resource fetch algorithm with urlRecord.

Failed with elements : Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named error at candidate. Await a stable state. Otherwise, jump back to the process candidate step.

Wait until the node after pointer is a node other than the end of the list. This step might wait forever. The dedicated media source failure steps with a list of promises promises are the following steps:.

Fire an event named error at the media element. Set the element's delaying-the-load-event flag to false. The resource fetch algorithm for a media element and a given URL record or media provider object is as follows:.

If the algorithm was invoked with media provider object or a URL record whose object is a media provider object , then let mode be local. Otherwise let mode be remote.

If mode is remote , then let the current media resource be the resource given by the URL record passed to this algorithm; otherwise, let the current media resource be the resource given by the media provider object.

Either way, the current media resource is now the element's media resource. Remove all media-resource-specific text tracks from the media element 's list of pending text tracks , if any.

Optionally, run the following substeps. This is the expected behavior if the user agent intends to not attempt to fetch the resource until the user requests it explicitly e.

Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named suspend at the element. Queue a media element task given the media element to set the element's delaying-the-load-event flag to false.

Wait for the task to be run. Wait for an implementation-defined event e. Set the element's delaying-the-load-event flag back to true this delays the load event again, in case it hasn't been fired yet.

Let destination be " audio " if the media element is an audio element and to " video " otherwise. Let request be the result of creating a potential-CORS request given current media resource 's URL record , destination , and the media element 's crossorigin content attribute value.

Set request 's client to the media element 's node document 's relevant settings object. The response 's unsafe response obtained in this fashion, if any, contains the media data.

It can be CORS-same-origin or CORS-cross-origin ; this affects whether subtitles referenced in the media data are exposed in the API and, for video elements, whether a canvas gets tainted when the video is drawn on it.

The stall timeout is an implementation-defined length of time, which should be about three seconds. When a media element that is actively attempting to obtain media data has failed to receive any data for a duration equal to the stall timeout , the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named stalled at the element.

User agents may allow users to selectively block or slow media data downloads. When a media element 's download has been blocked altogether, the user agent must act as if it was stalled as opposed to acting as if the connection was closed.

The rate of the download may also be throttled automatically by the user agent, e. User agents may decide to not download more content at any time, e.

Between the queuing of these tasks, the load is suspended so progress events don't fire, as described above. The preload attribute provides a hint regarding how much buffering the author thinks is advisable, even in the absence of the autoplay attribute.

When a user agent decides to completely suspend a download, e. The user agent may use whatever means necessary to fetch the resource within the constraints put forward by this and other specifications ; for example, reconnecting to the server in the face of network errors, using HTTP range retrieval requests, or switching to a streaming protocol.

The user agent must consider a resource erroneous only if it has given up trying to fetch it. To determine the format of the media resource , the user agent must use the rules for sniffing audio and video specifically.

The networking task source tasks to process the data as it is being fetched must each immediately queue a media element task given the media element to run the first appropriate steps from the media data processing steps list below.

A new task is used for this so that the work described below occurs relative to the appropriate media element event task source rather than using the networking task source.

When the networking task source has queued the last task as part of fetching the media resource i. This might never happen, e.

While the user agent might still need network access to obtain parts of the media resource , the user agent must remain on this step.

For example, if the user agent has discarded the first half of a video, the user agent will remain at this step even once the playback has ended , because there is always the chance the user will seek back to the start.

In fact, in this situation, once playback has ended , the user agent will end up firing a suspend event, as described earlier.

The resource described by the current media resource , if any, contains the media data. It is CORS-same-origin.

If the current media resource is a raw data stream e. Otherwise, if the data stream is pre-decoded, then the format is the format given by the relevant specification.

Whenever new data for the current media resource becomes available, queue a media element task given the media element to run the first appropriate steps from the media data processing steps list below.

When the current media resource is permanently exhausted e. The media data processing steps list is as follows:.

DNS errors, HTTP 4xx and 5xx errors and equivalents in other protocols , and other fatal network errors that occur before the user agent has established whether the current media resource is usable, as well as the file using an unsupported container format, or using unsupported codecs for all the data, must cause the user agent to execute the following steps:.

The user agent should cancel the fetching process. Abort this subalgorithm, returning to the resource selection algorithm. Create an AudioTrack object to represent the audio track.

Let enable be unknown. If either the media resource or the URL of the current media resource indicate a particular set of audio tracks to enable, or if the user agent has information that would facilitate the selection of specific audio tracks to improve the user's experience, then: if this audio track is one of the ones to enable, then set enable to true , otherwise, set enable to false.

This could be triggered by media fragment syntax , but it could also be triggered e. If enable is still unknown , then, if the media element does not yet have an enabled audio track, then set enable to true , otherwise, set enable to false.

If enable is true , then enable this audio track, otherwise, do not enable this audio track. Fire an event named addtrack at this AudioTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the new AudioTrack object.

If the media resource is found to have a video track Create a VideoTrack object to represent the video track. If either the media resource or the URL of the current media resource indicate a particular set of video tracks to enable, or if the user agent has information that would facilitate the selection of specific video tracks to improve the user's experience, then: if this video track is the first such video track, then set enable to true , otherwise, set enable to false.

This could again be triggered by media fragment syntax. If enable is still unknown , then, if the media element does not yet have a selected video track, then set enable to true , otherwise, set enable to false.

If enable is true , then select this track and unselect any previously selected video tracks, otherwise, do not select this video track. If other tracks are unselected, then a change event will be fired.

Fire an event named addtrack at this VideoTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the new VideoTrack object.

Once enough of the media data has been fetched to determine the duration of the media resource , its dimensions, and other metadata This indicates that the resource is usable.

The user agent must follow these substeps:. Establish the media timeline for the purposes of the current playback position and the earliest possible position , based on the media data.

Update the timeline offset to the date and time that corresponds to the zero time in the media timeline established in the previous step, if any.

If no explicit time and date is given by the media resource , the timeline offset must be set to Not-a-Number NaN.

Set the current playback position and the official playback position to the earliest possible position. Update the duration attribute with the time of the last frame of the resource, if known, on the media timeline established above.

If it is not known e. The user agent will queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named durationchange at the element at this point.

For video elements, set the videoWidth and videoHeight attributes, and queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named resize at the media element.

Further resize events will be fired if the dimensions subsequently change. A loadedmetadata DOM event will be fired as part of setting the readyState attribute to a new value.

Let jumped be false. If the media element 's default playback start position is greater than zero, then seek to that time, and let jumped be true.

Let the media element 's default playback start position be zero. Let the initial playback position be zero.

If either the media resource or the URL of the current media resource indicate a particular start time, then set the initial playback position to that time and, if jumped is still false, seek to that time.

For example, with media formats that support media fragment syntax , the fragment can be used to indicate a start position.

If there is no enabled audio track, then enable an audio track. This will cause a change event to be fired. If there is no selected video track, then select a video track.

The user agent is required to determine the duration of the media resource and go through this step before playing. Fire an event named progress at the media element.

If the user agent can keep the media resource loaded, then the algorithm will continue to its final step below, which aborts the algorithm.

Fatal network errors that occur after the user agent has established whether the current media resource is usable i. Abort the overall resource selection algorithm.

If the media data is corrupted Fatal errors in decoding the media data that occur after the user agent has established whether the current media resource is usable i.

If the media data fetching process is aborted by the user The fetching process is aborted by the user, e. These steps are not followed if the load method itself is invoked while these steps are running, as the steps above handle that particular kind of abort.

Fire an event named abort at the media element. If the media data can be fetched but has non-fatal errors or uses, in part, codecs that are unsupported, preventing the user agent from rendering the content completely correctly but not preventing playback altogether The server returning data that is partially usable but cannot be optimally rendered must cause the user agent to render just the bits it can handle, and ignore the rest.

If the media data is CORS-same-origin , run the steps to expose a media-resource-specific text track with the relevant data. Cross-origin videos do not expose their subtitles, since that would allow attacks such as hostile sites reading subtitles from confidential videos on a user's intranet.

Final step: If the user agent ever reaches this step which can only happen if the entire resource gets loaded and kept available : abort the overall resource selection algorithm.

When a media element is to forget the media element's media-resource-specific tracks , the user agent must remove from the media element 's list of text tracks all the media-resource-specific text tracks , then empty the media element 's audioTracks attribute's AudioTrackList object, then empty the media element 's videoTracks attribute's VideoTrackList object.

No events in particular, no removetrack events are fired as part of this; the error and emptied events, fired by the algorithms that invoke this one, can be used instead.

The preload attribute is an enumerated attribute. The following table lists the keywords and states for the attribute — the keywords in the left column map to the states in the cell in the second column on the same row as the keyword.

The attribute can be changed even once the media resource is being buffered or played; the descriptions in the table below are to be interpreted with that in mind.

The empty string is also a valid keyword, and maps to the Automatic state. The attribute's missing value default and invalid value default are implementation-defined , though the Metadata state is suggested as a compromise between reducing server load and providing an optimal user experience.

Authors might switch the attribute from " none " or " metadata " to " auto " dynamically once the user begins playback. For example, on a page with many videos this might be used to indicate that the many videos are not to be downloaded unless requested, but that once one is requested it is to be downloaded aggressively.

The preload attribute is intended to provide a hint to the user agent about what the author thinks will lead to the best user experience.

The attribute may be ignored altogether, for example based on explicit user preferences or based on the available connectivity. The preload IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name, limited to only known values.

The autoplay attribute can override the preload attribute since if the media plays, it naturally has to buffer first, regardless of the hint given by the preload attribute.

Including both is not an error, however. Returns a TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource that the user agent has buffered.

The buffered attribute must return a new static normalized TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource , if any, that the user agent has buffered, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

Users agents must accurately determine the ranges available, even for media streams where this can only be determined by tedious inspection.

Typically this will be a single range anchored at the zero point, but if, e. Thus, a time position included within a range of the objects return by the buffered attribute at one time can end up being not included in the range s of objects returned by the same attribute at later times.

Returning a new object each time is a bad pattern for attribute getters and is only enshrined here as it would be costly to change it.

It is not to be copied to new APIs. Returns the length of the media resource , in seconds, assuming that the start of the media resource is at time zero.

Returns the official playback position , in seconds. A media resource has a media timeline that maps times in seconds to positions in the media resource.

The origin of a timeline is its earliest defined position. The duration of a timeline is its last defined position. Establishing the media timeline : if the media resource somehow specifies an explicit timeline whose origin is not negative i.

Whether the media resource can specify a timeline or not depends on the media resource's format. If the media resource specifies an explicit start time and date , then that time and date should be considered the zero point in the media timeline ; the timeline offset will be the time and date, exposed using the getStartDate method.

If the media resource has a discontinuous timeline, the user agent must extend the timeline used at the start of the resource across the entire resource, so that the media timeline of the media resource increases linearly starting from the earliest possible position as defined below , even if the underlying media data has out-of-order or even overlapping time codes.

For example, if two clips have been concatenated into one video file, but the video format exposes the original times for the two clips, the video data might expose a timeline that goes, say, However, the user agent would not expose those times; it would instead expose the times as In the rare case of a media resource that does not have an explicit timeline, the zero time on the media timeline should correspond to the first frame of the media resource.

In the even rarer case of a media resource with no explicit timings of any kind, not even frame durations, the user agent must itself determine the time for each frame in an implementation-defined manner.

An example of a file format with no explicit timeline but with explicit frame durations is the Animated GIF format. If, in the case of a resource with no timing information, the user agent will nonetheless be able to seek to an earlier point than the first frame originally provided by the server, then the zero time should correspond to the earliest seekable time of the media resource ; otherwise, it should correspond to the first frame received from the server the point in the media resource at which the user agent began receiving the stream.

At the time of writing, there is no known format that lacks explicit frame time offsets yet still supports seeking to a frame before the first frame sent by the server.

Consider a stream from a TV broadcaster, which begins streaming on a sunny Friday afternoon in October, and always sends connecting user agents the media data on the same media timeline, with its zero time set to the start of this stream.

Months later, user agents connecting to this stream will find that the first frame they receive has a time with millions of seconds.

The getStartDate method would always return the date that the broadcast started; this would allow controllers to display real times in their scrubber e.

Consider a stream that carries a video with several concatenated fragments, broadcast by a server that does not allow user agents to request specific times but instead just streams the video data in a predetermined order, with the first frame delivered always being identified as the frame with time zero.

If a user agent connects to this stream and receives fragments defined as covering timestamps UTC to UTC and UTC to UTC, it would expose this with a media timeline starting at 0s and extending to 3,s one hour.

Assuming the streaming server disconnected at the end of the second clip, the duration attribute would then return 3, However, if a different user agent connected five minutes later, it would presumably receive fragments covering timestamps UTC to UTC and UTC to UTC, and would expose this with a media timeline starting at 0s and extending to 3,s fifty five minutes.

In this case, the getStartDate method would return a Date object with a time corresponding to UTC. In both of these examples, the seekable attribute would give the ranges that the controller would want to actually display in its UI; typically, if the servers don't support seeking to arbitrary times, this would be the range of time from the moment the user agent connected to the stream up to the latest frame that the user agent has obtained; however, if the user agent starts discarding earlier information, the actual range might be shorter.

In any case, the user agent must ensure that the earliest possible position as defined below using the established media timeline , is greater than or equal to zero.

The media timeline also has an associated clock. Which clock is used is user-agent defined, and may be media resource -dependent, but it should approximate the user's wall clock.

Media elements have a current playback position , which must initially i. The current playback position is a time on the media timeline.

Media elements also have an official playback position , which must initially be set to zero seconds. The official playback position is an approximation of the current playback position that is kept stable while scripts are running.

Media elements also have a default playback start position , which must initially be set to zero seconds. This time is used to allow the element to be seeked even before the media is loaded.

Each media element has a show poster flag. When a media element is created, this flag must be set to true.

This flag is used to control when the user agent is to show a poster frame for a video element instead of showing the video contents.

The returned value must be expressed in seconds. The new value must be interpreted as being in seconds.

If the media resource is a streaming resource, then the user agent might be unable to obtain certain parts of the resource after it has expired from its buffer.

Similarly, some media resources might have a media timeline that doesn't start at zero. The earliest possible position is the earliest position in the stream or resource that the user agent can ever obtain again.

It is also a time on the media timeline. The earliest possible position is not explicitly exposed in the API; it corresponds to the start time of the first range in the seekable attribute's TimeRanges object, if any, or the current playback position otherwise.

When the earliest possible position changes, then: if the current playback position is before the earliest possible position , the user agent must seek to the earliest possible position ; otherwise, if the user agent has not fired a timeupdate event at the element in the past 15 to ms and is not still running event handlers for such an event, then the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

Because of the above requirement and the requirement in the resource fetch algorithm that kicks in when the metadata of the clip becomes known , the current playback position can never be less than the earliest possible position.

If at any time the user agent learns that an audio or video track has ended and all media data relating to that track corresponds to parts of the media timeline that are before the earliest possible position , the user agent may queue a media element task given the media element to run these steps:.

Fire an event named removetrack at the media element 's aforementioned AudioTrackList or VideoTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the AudioTrack or VideoTrack object representing the track.

If no media data is available, then the attributes must return the Not-a-Number NaN value. If the media resource is not known to be bounded e.

When the length of the media resource changes to a known value e. The event is not fired when the duration is reset as part of loading a new media resource.

If the duration is changed such that the current playback position ends up being greater than the time of the end of the media resource , then the user agent must also seek to the time of the end of the media resource.

If an "infinite" stream ends for some reason, then the duration would change from positive Infinity to the time of the last frame or sample in the stream, and the durationchange event would be fired.

Similarly, if the user agent initially estimated the media resource 's duration instead of determining it precisely, and later revises the estimate based on new information, then the duration would change and the durationchange event would be fired.

Some video files also have an explicit date and time corresponding to the zero time in the media timeline , known as the timeline offset.

Initially, the timeline offset must be set to Not-a-Number NaN. The getStartDate method must return a new Date object representing the current timeline offset.

The loop attribute is a boolean attribute that, if specified, indicates that the media element is to seek back to the start of the media resource upon reaching the end.

The loop IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name. Returns a value that expresses the current state of the element with respect to rendering the current playback position , from the codes in the list below.

Media elements have a ready state , which describes to what degree they are ready to be rendered at the current playback position.

The possible values are as follows; the ready state of a media element at any particular time is the greatest value describing the state of the element:.

No information regarding the media resource is available. No data for the current playback position is available. In the case of a video element, the dimensions of the video are also available.

No media data is available for the immediate current playback position. For example, in video this corresponds to the user agent having data from the current frame, but not the next frame, when the current playback position is at the end of the current frame; and to when playback has ended.

For example, in video this corresponds to the user agent having data for at least the current frame and the next frame when the current playback position is at the instant in time between the two frames, or to the user agent having the video data for the current frame and audio data to keep playing at least a little when the current playback position is in the middle of a frame.

The user agent cannot be in this state if playback has ended , as the current playback position can never advance in this case.

The only time that distinction really matters is when a page provides an interface for "frame-by-frame" navigation. Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named loadedmetadata at the element.

Before this task is run, as part of the event loop mechanism, the rendering will have been updated to resize the video element if appropriate. If this is the first time this occurs for this media element since the load algorithm was last invoked, the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named loadeddata at the element.

The user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named canplay at the element. If the element's paused attribute is false, the user agent must notify about playing for the element.

The user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named canplaythrough at the element. If the element is not eligible for autoplay , then the user agent must abort these substeps.

Alternatively, if the element is a video element, the user agent may start observing whether the element intersects the viewport.

When the element starts intersecting the viewport , if the element is still eligible for autoplay , run the substeps above.

Optionally, when the element stops intersecting the viewport , if the can autoplay flag is still true and the autoplay attribute is still specified, run the following substeps:.

The substeps for playing and pausing can run multiple times as the element starts or stops intersecting the viewport , as long as the can autoplay flag is true.

User agents do not need to support autoplay, and it is suggested that user agents honor user preferences on the matter. Authors are urged to use the autoplay attribute rather than using script to force the video to play, so as to allow the user to override the behavior if so desired.

It is possible for the ready state of a media element to jump between these states discontinuously. The autoplay attribute is a boolean attribute.

When present, the user agent as described in the algorithm described herein will automatically begin playback of the media resource as soon as it can do so without stopping.

Authors are urged to use the autoplay attribute rather than using script to trigger automatic playback, as this allows the user to override the automatic playback when it is not desired, e.

Authors are also encouraged to consider not using the automatic playback behavior at all, and instead to let the user agent wait for the user to start playback explicitly.

Returns true if playback has reached the end of the media resource. Returns the default rate of playback, for when the user is not fast-forwarding or reversing through the media resource.

The default rate has no direct effect on playback, but if the user switches to a fast-forward mode, when they return to the normal playback mode, it is expected that the rate of playback will be returned to the default rate of playback.

Returns true if pitch-preserving algorithms are used when the playbackRate is not 1. The default value is true. Can be set to false to have the media resource 's audio pitch change up or down depending on the playbackRate.

This is useful for aesthetic and performance reasons. Returns a TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource that the user agent has played.

Sets the paused attribute to false, loading the media resource and beginning playback if necessary. If the playback had ended, will restart it from the start.

Sets the paused attribute to true, loading the media resource if necessary. The attribute must initially be true. A media element is said to be potentially playing when its paused attribute is false, the element has not ended playback , playback has not stopped due to errors , and the element is not a blocked media element.

A media element is said to be eligible for autoplay when all of the following conditions are met:. A media element is said to be allowed to play if the user agent and the system allow media playback in the current context.

For example, a user agent could allow playback only when the media element 's Window object has transient activation , but an exception could be made to allow playback while muted.

A media element is said to have ended playback when:. Either: The current playback position is the end of the media resource , and The direction of playback is forwards, and The media element does not have a loop attribute specified.

Or: The current playback position is the earliest possible position , and The direction of playback is backwards.

It is possible for a media element to have both ended playback and paused for user interaction at the same time.

When a media element that is potentially playing stops playing because it has paused for user interaction , the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

One example of when a media element would be paused for in-band content is when the user agent is playing audio descriptions from an external WebVTT file, and the synthesized speech generated for a cue is longer than the time between the text track cue start time and the text track cue end time.

When the current playback position reaches the end of the media resource when the direction of playback is forwards, then the user agent must follow these steps:.

If the media element has a loop attribute specified, then seek to the earliest possible position of the media resource and return.

As defined above, the ended IDL attribute starts returning true once the event loop returns to step 1.

Queue a media element task given the media element and the following steps:. Fire an event named timeupdate at the media element. If the media element has ended playback , the direction of playback is forwards, and paused is false, then:.

Fire an event named pause at the media element. Fire an event named ended at the media element. When the current playback position reaches the earliest possible position of the media resource when the direction of playback is backwards, then the user agent must only queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

The word "reaches" here does not imply that the current playback position needs to have changed during normal playback; it could be via seeking , for instance.

The defaultPlaybackRate attribute gives the desired speed at which the media resource is to play, as a multiple of its intrinsic speed.

The attribute is mutable: on getting it must return the last value it was set to, or 1. The defaultPlaybackRate is used by the user agent when it exposes a user interface to the user.

The playbackRate attribute gives the effective playback rate, which is the speed at which the media resource plays, as a multiple of its intrinsic speed.

If it is not equal to the defaultPlaybackRate , then the implication is that the user is using a feature such as fast forward or slow motion playback.

Set playbackRate to the new value, and if the element is potentially playing , change the playback speed. When the defaultPlaybackRate or playbackRate attributes change value either by being set by script or by being changed directly by the user agent, e.

The user agent must process attribute changes smoothly and must not introduce any perceivable gaps or muting of playback in response. The preservesPitch getter steps are to return true if a pitch-preserving algorithm is in effect during playback.

The setter steps are to correspondingly switch the pitch-preserving algorithm on or off, without any perceivable gaps or muting of playback.

By default, such a pitch-preserving algorithm must be in effect i. The played attribute must return a new static normalized TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of points on the media timeline of the media resource reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, if any, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

Each media element has a list of pending play promises , which must initially be empty. To take pending play promises for a media element , the user agent must run the following steps:.

Let promises be an empty list of promises. Copy the media element 's list of pending play promises to promises. Clear the media element 's list of pending play promises.

Return promises. To resolve pending play promises for a media element with a list of promises promises , the user agent must resolve each promise in promises with undefined.

To reject pending play promises for a media element with a list of promise promises and an exception name error , the user agent must reject each promise in promises with error.

To notify about playing for a media element , the user agent must run the following steps:. Take pending play promises and let promises be the result.

Queue a media element task given the element and the following steps:. Fire an event named playing at the element. Resolve pending play promises with promises.

This means that the dedicated media source failure steps have run. Playback is not possible until the media element load algorithm clears the error attribute.

Let promise be a new promise and append promise to the list of pending play promises. Run the internal play steps for the media element.

Return promise. The internal play steps for a media element are as follows:. If the playback has ended and the direction of playback is forwards, seek to the earliest possible position of the media resource.

This will cause the user agent to queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the media element.

If the media element 's paused attribute is true, then:. Change the value of paused to false. If the show poster flag is true, set the element's show poster flag to false and run the time marches on steps.

Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named play at the element. The media element is already playing.

However, it's possible that promise will be rejected before the queued task is run. Set the media element 's can autoplay flag to false. Run the internal pause steps for the media element.

The internal pause steps for a media element are as follows:. If the media element 's paused attribute is false, run the following steps:.

Change the value of paused to true. Queue a media element task on the given the media element and the following steps:.

Fire an event named timeupdate at the element. Fire an event named pause at the element. Set the official playback position to the current playback position.

If the element's playbackRate is positive or zero, then the direction of playback is forwards. Otherwise, it is backwards. When a media element is potentially playing and its Document is a fully active Document , its current playback position must increase monotonically at the element's playbackRate units of media time per unit time of the media timeline 's clock.

This specification always refers to this as an increase , but that increase could actually be a de crease if the element's playbackRate is negative.

The element's playbackRate can be 0. This specification doesn't define how the user agent achieves the appropriate playback rate — depending on the protocol and media available, it is plausible that the user agent could negotiate with the server to have the server provide the media data at the appropriate rate, so that except for the period between when the rate is changed and when the server updates the stream's playback rate the client doesn't actually have to drop or interpolate any frames.

Any time the user agent provides a stable state , the official playback position must be set to the current playback position. While the direction of playback is backwards, any corresponding audio must be muted.

While the element's playbackRate is so low or so high that the user agent cannot play audio usefully, the corresponding audio must also be muted.

If the element's playbackRate is not 1. Otherwise, the user agent must speed up or slow down the audio without any pitch adjustment. When a media element is potentially playing , its audio data played must be synchronized with the current playback position , at the element's effective media volume.

When a media element is not potentially playing , audio must not play for the element. Media elements that are potentially playing while not in a document must not play any video, but should play any audio component.

Media elements must not stop playing just because all references to them have been removed; only once a media element is in a state where no further audio could ever be played by that element may the element be garbage collected.

It is possible for an element to which no explicit references exist to play audio, even if such an element is not still actively playing: for instance, it could be unpaused but stalled waiting for content to buffer, or it could be still buffering, but with a suspend event listener that begins playback.

Even a media element whose media resource has no audio tracks could eventually play audio again if it had an event listener that changes the media resource.

Each media element has a list of newly introduced cues , which must be initially empty. Whenever a text track cue is added to the list of cues of a text track that is in the list of text tracks for a media element , that cue must be added to the media element 's list of newly introduced cues.

Whenever a text track is added to the list of text tracks for a media element , all of the cues in that text track 's list of cues must be added to the media element 's list of newly introduced cues.

When a media element 's list of newly introduced cues has new cues added while the media element 's show poster flag is not set, then the user agent must run the time marches on steps.

When a text track cue is removed from the list of cues of a text track that is in the list of text tracks for a media element , and whenever a text track is removed from the list of text tracks of a media element , if the media element 's show poster flag is not set, then the user agent must run the time marches on steps.

When the current playback position of a media element changes e. To support use cases that depend on the timing accuracy of cue event firing, such as synchronizing captions with shot changes in a video, user agents should fire cue events as close as possible to their position on the media timeline, and ideally within 20 milliseconds.

If the current playback position changes while the steps are running, then the user agent must wait for the steps to complete, and then must immediately rerun the steps.

These steps are thus run as often as possible or needed. If one iteration takes a long time, this can cause short duration cues to be skipped over as the user agent rushes ahead to "catch up", so these cues will not appear in the activeCues list.

Let current cues be a list of cues , initialized to contain all the cues of all the hidden or showing text tracks of the media element not the disabled ones whose start times are less than or equal to the current playback position and whose end times are greater than the current playback position.

Let other cues be a list of cues , initialized to contain all the cues of hidden and showing text tracks of the media element that are not present in current cues.

Let last time be the current playback position at the time this algorithm was last run for this media element , if this is not the first time it has run.

If the current playback position has, since the last time this algorithm was run, only changed through its usual monotonic increase during normal playback, then let missed cues be the list of cues in other cues whose start times are greater than or equal to last time and whose end times are less than or equal to the current playback position.

Otherwise, let missed cues be an empty list. Remove all the cues in missed cues that are also in the media element 's list of newly introduced cues , and then empty the element's list of newly introduced cues.

If the time was reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, and if the user agent has not fired a timeupdate event at the element in the past 15 to ms and is not still running event handlers for such an event, then the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, relevant events get fired as part of the overall process of changing the current playback position.

The event thus is not to be fired faster than about 66Hz or slower than 4Hz assuming the event handlers don't take longer than ms to run.

User agents are encouraged to vary the frequency of the event based on the system load and the average cost of processing the event each time, so that the UI updates are not any more frequent than the user agent can comfortably handle while decoding the video.

If all of the cues in current cues have their text track cue active flag set, none of the cues in other cues have their text track cue active flag set, and missed cues is empty, then return.

If the time was reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, and there are cues in other cues that have their text track cue pause-on-exit flag set and that either have their text track cue active flag set or are also in missed cues , then immediately pause the media element.

In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, playback is not paused by going past the end time of a cue , even if that cue has its text track cue pause-on-exit flag set.

Let events be a list of tasks , initially empty. Each task in this list will be associated with a text track , a text track cue , and a time, which are used to sort the list before the tasks are queued.

Let affected tracks be a list of text tracks , initially empty. When the steps below say to prepare an event named event for a text track cue target with a time time , the user agent must run these steps:.

Let track be the text track with which the text track cue target is associated. Create a task to fire an event named event at target.

Add the newly created task to events , associated with the time time , the text track track , and the text track cue target.

Add track to affected tracks. For each text track cue in missed cues , prepare an event named enter for the TextTrackCue object with the text track cue start time.

For each text track cue in other cues that either has its text track cue active flag set or is in missed cues , prepare an event named exit for the TextTrackCue object with the later of the text track cue end time and the text track cue start time.

For each text track cue in current cues that does not have its text track cue active flag set, prepare an event named enter for the TextTrackCue object with the text track cue start time.

Sort the tasks in events in ascending time order tasks with earlier times first. Further sort tasks in events that have the same time by the relative text track cue order of the text track cues associated with these tasks.

Finally, sort tasks in events that have the same time and same text track cue order by placing tasks that fire enter events before those that fire exit events.

Queue a media element task given the media element for each task in events , in list order. Sort affected tracks in the same order as the text tracks appear in the media element 's list of text tracks , and remove duplicates.

For each text track in affected tracks , in the list order, queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named cuechange at the TextTrack object, and, if the text track has a corresponding track element, to then fire an event named cuechange at the track element as well.

Set the text track cue active flag of all the cues in the current cues , and unset the text track cue active flag of all the cues in the other cues.

Run the rules for updating the text track rendering of each of the text tracks in affected tracks that are showing , providing the text track 's text track language as the fallback language if it is not the empty string.

If the media element 's node document stops being a fully active document, then the playback will stop until the document is active again.

When a media element is removed from a Document , the user agent must run the following steps:.

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If an image is thus obtained, the poster frame is that image. Otherwise, there is no poster frame. The image given by the poster attribute, the poster frame , is intended to be a representative frame of the video typically one of the first non-blank frames that gives the user an idea of what the video is like.

The playsinline attribute is a boolean attribute. If present, it serves as a hint to the user agent that the video ought to be displayed "inline" in the document by default, constrained to the element's playback area, instead of being displayed fullscreen or in an independent resizable window.

The absence of the playsinline attributes does not imply that the video will display fullscreen by default. Indeed, most user agents have chosen to play all videos inline by default, and in such user agents the playsinline attribute has no effect.

A video element represents what is given for the first matching condition in the list below:. Frames of video must be obtained from the video track that was selected when the event loop last reached step 1.

Which frame in a video stream corresponds to a particular playback position is defined by the video stream's format.

The video element also represents any text track cues whose text track cue active flag is set and whose text track is in the showing mode, and any audio from the media resource , at the current playback position.

Any audio associated with the media resource must, if played, be played synchronized with the current playback position , at the element's effective media volume.

The user agent must play the audio from audio tracks that were enabled when the event loop last reached step 1. In addition to the above, the user agent may provide messages to the user such as "buffering", "no video loaded", "error", or more detailed information by overlaying text or icons on the video or other areas of the element's playback area, or in another appropriate manner.

User agents that cannot render the video may instead make the element represent a link to an external video playback utility or to the video data itself.

When a video element's media resource has a video channel, the element provides a paint source whose width is the media resource 's intrinsic width , whose height is the media resource 's intrinsic height , and whose appearance is the frame of video corresponding to the current playback position , if that is available, or else e.

These attributes return the intrinsic dimensions of the video, or zero if the dimensions are not known.

The intrinsic width and intrinsic height of the media resource are the dimensions of the resource in CSS pixels after taking into account the resource's dimensions, aspect ratio, clean aperture, resolution, and so forth, as defined for the format used by the resource.

If an anamorphic format does not define how to apply the aspect ratio to the video data's dimensions to obtain the "correct" dimensions, then the user agent must apply the ratio by increasing one dimension and leaving the other unchanged.

The video element supports dimension attributes. In the absence of style rules to the contrary, video content should be rendered inside the element's playback area such that the video content is shown centered in the playback area at the largest possible size that fits completely within it, with the video content's aspect ratio being preserved.

Thus, if the aspect ratio of the playback area does not match the aspect ratio of the video, the video will be shown letterboxed or pillarboxed.

Areas of the element's playback area that do not contain the video represent nothing. In user agents that implement CSS, the above requirement can be implemented by using the style rule suggested in the rendering section.

The intrinsic width of a video element's playback area is the intrinsic width of the poster frame , if that is available and the element currently represents its poster frame; otherwise, it is the intrinsic width of the video resource, if that is available; otherwise the intrinsic width is missing.

The intrinsic height of a video element's playback area is the intrinsic height of the poster frame , if that is available and the element currently represents its poster frame; otherwise it is the intrinsic height of the video resource, if that is available; otherwise the intrinsic height is missing.

User agents should provide controls to enable or disable the display of closed captions, audio description tracks, and other additional data associated with the video stream, though such features should, again, not interfere with the page's normal rendering.

User agents may allow users to view the video content in manners more suitable to the user, such as fullscreen or in an independent resizable window.

User agents may even trigger such a viewing mode by default upon playing a video, although they should not do so when the playsinline attribute is specified.

As with the other user interface features, controls to enable this should not interfere with the page's normal rendering unless the user agent is exposing a user interface.

In such an independent viewing mode, however, user agents may make full user interfaces visible, even if the controls attribute is absent. User agents may allow video playback to affect system features that could interfere with the user's experience; for example, user agents could disable screensavers while video playback is in progress.

The poster IDL attribute must reflect the poster content attribute. The playsInline IDL attribute must reflect the playsinline content attribute.

It may contain one or more audio sources, represented using the src attribute or the element: the browser will choose the most suitable one.

It can also be the destination for streamed media, using a MediaStream. If the element has a controls attribute: Palpable content.

Content attributes : Global attributes src — Address of the resource crossorigin — How the element handles crossorigin requests preload — Hints how much buffering the media resource will likely need autoplay — Hint that the media resource can be started automatically when the page is loaded loop — Whether to loop the media resource muted — Whether to mute the media resource by default controls — Show user agent controls Accessibility considerations : For authors.

Content may be provided inside the audio element. User agents should not show this content to the user; it is intended for older web browsers which do not support audio , so that legacy audio plugins can be tried, or to show text to the users of these older browsers informing them of how to access the audio contents.

To make audio content accessible to the deaf or to those with other physical or cognitive disabilities, a variety of features are available. If captions or a sign language video are available, the video element can be used instead of the audio element to play the audio, allowing users to enable the visual alternatives.

Chapter titles can be provided to aid navigation, using the track element and a WebVTT file. And, naturally, transcripts or other textual alternatives can be provided by simply linking to them in the prose near the audio element.

The audio element is a media element whose media data is ostensibly audio data. Returns a new audio element, with the src attribute set to the value passed in the argument, if applicable.

When invoked, the legacy factory function must perform the following steps:. Let document be the current global object 's associated Document.

Let audio be the result of creating an element given document , audio , and the HTML namespace. Set an attribute value for audio using " preload " and " auto ".

If src is given, then set an attribute value for audio using " src " and src. This will cause the user agent to invoke the object's resource selection algorithm before returning.

Return audio. It lets you specify timed text tracks or time-based data , for example to automatically handle subtitles.

This element can be used as a child of either or to specify a text track containing information such as closed captions or subtitles. Contexts in which this element can be used : As a child of a media element , before any flow content.

Content model : Nothing. Content attributes : Global attributes kind — The type of text track src — Address of the resource srclang — Language of the text track label — User-visible label default — Enable the track if no other text track is more suitable Accessibility considerations : For authors.

It does not represent anything on its own. The kind attribute is an enumerated attribute. The following table lists the keywords defined for this attribute.

The keyword given in the first cell of each row maps to the state given in the second cell. The attribute may be omitted.

The missing value default is the subtitles state. The invalid value default is the metadata state. The src attribute gives the URL of the text track data.

The value must be a valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces. This attribute must be present. If the element has a src attribute whose value is not the empty string and whose value, when the attribute was set, could be successfully parsed relative to the element's node document , then the element's track URL is the resulting URL string.

Otherwise, the element's track URL is the empty string. The srclang attribute gives the language of the text track data.

The value must be a valid BCP 47 language tag. This attribute must be present if the element's kind attribute is in the subtitles state.

If the element has a srclang attribute whose value is not the empty string, then the element's track language is the value of the attribute.

Otherwise, the element has no track language. The label attribute gives a user-readable title for the track. This title is used by user agents when listing subtitle , caption , and audio description tracks in their user interface.

The value of the label attribute, if the attribute is present, must not be the empty string. Furthermore, there must not be two track element children of the same media element whose kind attributes are in the same state, whose srclang attributes are both missing or have values that represent the same language, and whose label attributes are again both missing or both have the same value.

If the element has a label attribute whose value is not the empty string, then the element's track label is the value of the attribute.

Otherwise, the element's track label is an empty string. The default attribute is a boolean attribute , which, if specified, indicates that the track is to be enabled if the user's preferences do not indicate that another track would be more appropriate.

Each media element must have no more than one track element child whose kind attribute is in the subtitles or captions state and whose default attribute is specified.

Each media element must have no more than one track element child whose kind attribute is in the description state and whose default attribute is specified.

Each media element must have no more than one track element child whose kind attribute is in the chapters metadata state and whose default attribute is specified.

There is no limit on the number of track elements whose kind attribute is in the metadata state and whose default attribute is specified.

Returns the text track readiness state , represented by a number from the following list:. The text track not loaded state.

The text track loading state. The text track loaded state. The text track failed to load state. Returns the TextTrack object corresponding to the text track of the track element.

The readyState attribute must return the numeric value corresponding to the text track readiness state of the track element's text track , as defined by the following list:.

The track IDL attribute must, on getting, return the track element's text track 's corresponding TextTrack object. The kind IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name, limited to only known values.

The lang attributes on the last two describe the language of the label attribute, not the language of the subtitles themselves. The language of the subtitles is given by the srclang attribute.

They are defined in this section. Media elements are used to present audio data, or video and audio data, to the user. This is referred to as media data in this section, since this section applies equally to media elements for audio or for video.

The term media resource is used to refer to the complete set of media data, e. A media resource can have multiple audio and video tracks. For the purposes of a media element , the video data of the media resource is only that of the currently selected track if any as given by the element's videoTracks attribute when the event loop last reached step 1 , and the audio data of the media resource is the result of mixing all the currently enabled tracks if any given by the element's audioTracks attribute when the event loop last reached step 1.

Both audio and video elements can be used for both audio and video. The main difference between the two is simply that the audio element has no playback area for visual content such as video or captions , whereas the video element does.

Each media element has a unique media element event task source. To queue a media element task with a media element element and a series of steps steps , queue an element task on the media element 's media element event task source given element and steps.

Returns a MediaError object representing the current error state of the element. The error attribute, on getting, must return the MediaError object created for this last error, or null if there has not been an error.

Returns a specific informative diagnostic message about the error condition encountered. The message and message format are not generally uniform across different user agents.

If no such message is available, then the empty string is returned. Every MediaError object has a message , which is a string, and a code , which is one of the following:.

To create a MediaError , given an error code which is one of the above values, return a new MediaError object whose code is the given error code and whose message is a string containing any details the user agent is able to supply about the cause of the error condition, or the empty string if the user agent is unable to supply such details.

This message string must not contain only the information already available via the supplied error code; for example, it must not simply be a translation of the code into a string format.

If no additional information is available beyond that provided by the error code, the message must be set to the empty string.

The src content attribute on media elements gives the URL of the media resource video, audio to show. If the itemprop attribute is specified on the media element , then the src attribute must also be specified.

If a media element is created with a src attribute, the user agent must immediately invoke the media element 's resource selection algorithm.

If a src attribute of a media element is set or changed, the user agent must invoke the media element 's media element load algorithm. Removing the src attribute does not do this, even if there are source elements present.

The crossOrigin IDL attribute must reflect the crossorigin content attribute, limited to only known values.

A media provider object is an object that can represent a media resource , separate from a URL. MediaStream objects, MediaSource objects, and Blob objects are all media provider objects.

Each media element can have an assigned media provider object , which is a media provider object. When a media element is created, it has no assigned media provider object.

Allows the media element to be assigned a media provider object. Returns the URL of the current media resource , if any.

Returns the empty string when there is no media resource , or it doesn't have a URL. Its value is changed by the resource selection algorithm defined below.

On setting, it must set the element's assigned media provider object to the new value, and then invoke the element's media element load algorithm.

There are three ways to specify a media resource : the srcObject IDL attribute, the src content attribute, and source elements.

The IDL attribute takes priority, followed by the content attribute, followed by the elements. A media resource can be described in terms of its type , specifically a MIME type , in some cases with a codecs parameter.

Whether the codecs parameter is allowed or not depends on the MIME type. Thus, given a type, a user agent can often only know whether it might be able to play media of that type with varying levels of confidence , or whether it definitely cannot play media of that type.

A type that the user agent knows it cannot render is one that describes a resource that the user agent definitely does not support, for example because it doesn't recognize the container type, or it doesn't support the listed codecs.

User agents must treat that type as equivalent to the lack of any explicit Content-Type metadata when it is used to label a potential media resource.

This is a deviation from the rule that unknown MIME type parameters should be ignored. Returns the empty string a negative response , "maybe", or "probably" based on how confident the user agent is that it can play media resources of the given type.

Implementors are encouraged to return " maybe " unless the type can be confidently established as being supported or not. Generally, a user agent should never return " probably " for a type that allows the codecs parameter if that parameter is not present.

This script tests to see if the user agent supports a fictional new format to dynamically decide whether to use a video element or a plugin:.

The type attribute of the source element allows the user agent to avoid downloading resources that use formats it cannot render.

Returns the current state of network activity for the element, from the codes in the list below. On getting, it must return the current network state of the element, which must be one of the following values:.

The resource selection algorithm defined below describes exactly when the networkState attribute changes value and what events fire to indicate changes in this state.

Causes the element to reset and start selecting and loading a new media resource from scratch. All media elements have a can autoplay flag , which must begin in the true state, and a delaying-the-load-event flag , which must begin in the false state.

While the delaying-the-load-event flag is true, the element must delay the load event of its document. The media element load algorithm consists of the following steps.

Abort any already-running instance of the resource selection algorithm for this element. Let pending tasks be a list of all tasks from the media element 's media element event task source in one of the task queues.

For each task in pending tasks that would resolve pending play promises or reject pending play promises , immediately resolve or reject those promises in the order the corresponding tasks were queued.

Remove each task in pending tasks from its task queue. Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named emptied at the media element.

If a fetching process is in progress for the media element , the user agent should stop it. If the media element 's assigned media provider object is a MediaSource object, then detach it.

Forget the media element's media-resource-specific tracks. If the paused attribute is false, then:. Set the paused attribute to true.

If seeking is true, set it to false. Set the current playback position to 0. Set the official playback position to 0. If this changed the official playback position , then queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the media element.

Set the timeline offset to Not-a-Number NaN. Update the duration attribute to Not-a-Number NaN. The user agent will not fire a durationchange event for this particular change of the duration.

Set the playbackRate attribute to the value of the defaultPlaybackRate attribute. Set the error attribute to null and the can autoplay flag to true.

Invoke the media element 's resource selection algorithm. Playback of any previously playing media resource for this element stops.

The resource selection algorithm for a media element is as follows. This algorithm is always invoked as part of a task , but one of the first steps in the algorithm is to return and continue running the remaining steps in parallel.

In addition, this algorithm interacts closely with the event loop mechanism; in particular, it has synchronous sections which are triggered as part of the event loop algorithm.

Set the element's show poster flag to true. Set the media element 's delaying-the-load-event flag to true this delays the load event.

Await a stable state , allowing the task that invoked this algorithm to continue. The synchronous section consists of all the remaining steps of this algorithm until the algorithm says the synchronous section has ended.

This stops delaying the load event. End the synchronous section and return. Run the appropriate steps from the following list:.

End the synchronous section , continuing the remaining steps in parallel. Run the resource fetch algorithm with the assigned media provider object.

If that algorithm returns without aborting this one, then the load failed. Failed with media provider : Reaching this step indicates that the media resource failed to load.

Take pending play promises and queue a media element task given the media element to run the dedicated media source failure steps with the result.

Wait for the task queued by the previous step to have executed. The element won't attempt to load another resource until this algorithm is triggered again.

If urlRecord was obtained successfully, run the resource fetch algorithm with urlRecord. Failed with attribute : Reaching this step indicates that the media resource failed to load or that the given URL could not be parsed.

One node is the node before pointer , and the other node is the node after pointer. Initially, let pointer be the position between the candidate node and the next node, if there are any, or the end of the list, if it is the last node.

As nodes are inserted and removed into the media element , pointer must be updated as follows:. Run the resource fetch algorithm with urlRecord.

Failed with elements : Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named error at candidate.

Await a stable state. Otherwise, jump back to the process candidate step. Wait until the node after pointer is a node other than the end of the list.

This step might wait forever. The dedicated media source failure steps with a list of promises promises are the following steps:. Fire an event named error at the media element.

Set the element's delaying-the-load-event flag to false. The resource fetch algorithm for a media element and a given URL record or media provider object is as follows:.

If the algorithm was invoked with media provider object or a URL record whose object is a media provider object , then let mode be local.

Otherwise let mode be remote. If mode is remote , then let the current media resource be the resource given by the URL record passed to this algorithm; otherwise, let the current media resource be the resource given by the media provider object.

Either way, the current media resource is now the element's media resource. Remove all media-resource-specific text tracks from the media element 's list of pending text tracks , if any.

Optionally, run the following substeps. This is the expected behavior if the user agent intends to not attempt to fetch the resource until the user requests it explicitly e.

Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named suspend at the element. Queue a media element task given the media element to set the element's delaying-the-load-event flag to false.

Wait for the task to be run. Wait for an implementation-defined event e. Set the element's delaying-the-load-event flag back to true this delays the load event again, in case it hasn't been fired yet.

Let destination be " audio " if the media element is an audio element and to " video " otherwise.

Let request be the result of creating a potential-CORS request given current media resource 's URL record , destination , and the media element 's crossorigin content attribute value.

Set request 's client to the media element 's node document 's relevant settings object. The response 's unsafe response obtained in this fashion, if any, contains the media data.

It can be CORS-same-origin or CORS-cross-origin ; this affects whether subtitles referenced in the media data are exposed in the API and, for video elements, whether a canvas gets tainted when the video is drawn on it.

The stall timeout is an implementation-defined length of time, which should be about three seconds. When a media element that is actively attempting to obtain media data has failed to receive any data for a duration equal to the stall timeout , the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named stalled at the element.

User agents may allow users to selectively block or slow media data downloads. When a media element 's download has been blocked altogether, the user agent must act as if it was stalled as opposed to acting as if the connection was closed.

The rate of the download may also be throttled automatically by the user agent, e. User agents may decide to not download more content at any time, e.

Between the queuing of these tasks, the load is suspended so progress events don't fire, as described above. The preload attribute provides a hint regarding how much buffering the author thinks is advisable, even in the absence of the autoplay attribute.

When a user agent decides to completely suspend a download, e. The user agent may use whatever means necessary to fetch the resource within the constraints put forward by this and other specifications ; for example, reconnecting to the server in the face of network errors, using HTTP range retrieval requests, or switching to a streaming protocol.

The user agent must consider a resource erroneous only if it has given up trying to fetch it. To determine the format of the media resource , the user agent must use the rules for sniffing audio and video specifically.

The networking task source tasks to process the data as it is being fetched must each immediately queue a media element task given the media element to run the first appropriate steps from the media data processing steps list below.

A new task is used for this so that the work described below occurs relative to the appropriate media element event task source rather than using the networking task source.

When the networking task source has queued the last task as part of fetching the media resource i. This might never happen, e.

While the user agent might still need network access to obtain parts of the media resource , the user agent must remain on this step.

For example, if the user agent has discarded the first half of a video, the user agent will remain at this step even once the playback has ended , because there is always the chance the user will seek back to the start.

In fact, in this situation, once playback has ended , the user agent will end up firing a suspend event, as described earlier.

The resource described by the current media resource , if any, contains the media data. It is CORS-same-origin. If the current media resource is a raw data stream e.

Otherwise, if the data stream is pre-decoded, then the format is the format given by the relevant specification.

Whenever new data for the current media resource becomes available, queue a media element task given the media element to run the first appropriate steps from the media data processing steps list below.

When the current media resource is permanently exhausted e. The media data processing steps list is as follows:.

DNS errors, HTTP 4xx and 5xx errors and equivalents in other protocols , and other fatal network errors that occur before the user agent has established whether the current media resource is usable, as well as the file using an unsupported container format, or using unsupported codecs for all the data, must cause the user agent to execute the following steps:.

The user agent should cancel the fetching process. Abort this subalgorithm, returning to the resource selection algorithm.

Create an AudioTrack object to represent the audio track. Let enable be unknown. If either the media resource or the URL of the current media resource indicate a particular set of audio tracks to enable, or if the user agent has information that would facilitate the selection of specific audio tracks to improve the user's experience, then: if this audio track is one of the ones to enable, then set enable to true , otherwise, set enable to false.

This could be triggered by media fragment syntax , but it could also be triggered e. If enable is still unknown , then, if the media element does not yet have an enabled audio track, then set enable to true , otherwise, set enable to false.

If enable is true , then enable this audio track, otherwise, do not enable this audio track. Fire an event named addtrack at this AudioTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the new AudioTrack object.

If the media resource is found to have a video track Create a VideoTrack object to represent the video track. If either the media resource or the URL of the current media resource indicate a particular set of video tracks to enable, or if the user agent has information that would facilitate the selection of specific video tracks to improve the user's experience, then: if this video track is the first such video track, then set enable to true , otherwise, set enable to false.

This could again be triggered by media fragment syntax. If enable is still unknown , then, if the media element does not yet have a selected video track, then set enable to true , otherwise, set enable to false.

If enable is true , then select this track and unselect any previously selected video tracks, otherwise, do not select this video track.

If other tracks are unselected, then a change event will be fired. Fire an event named addtrack at this VideoTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the new VideoTrack object.

Once enough of the media data has been fetched to determine the duration of the media resource , its dimensions, and other metadata This indicates that the resource is usable.

The user agent must follow these substeps:. Establish the media timeline for the purposes of the current playback position and the earliest possible position , based on the media data.

Update the timeline offset to the date and time that corresponds to the zero time in the media timeline established in the previous step, if any. If no explicit time and date is given by the media resource , the timeline offset must be set to Not-a-Number NaN.

Set the current playback position and the official playback position to the earliest possible position.

Update the duration attribute with the time of the last frame of the resource, if known, on the media timeline established above.

If it is not known e. The user agent will queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named durationchange at the element at this point.

For video elements, set the videoWidth and videoHeight attributes, and queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named resize at the media element.

Further resize events will be fired if the dimensions subsequently change. A loadedmetadata DOM event will be fired as part of setting the readyState attribute to a new value.

Let jumped be false. If the media element 's default playback start position is greater than zero, then seek to that time, and let jumped be true.

Let the media element 's default playback start position be zero. Let the initial playback position be zero. If either the media resource or the URL of the current media resource indicate a particular start time, then set the initial playback position to that time and, if jumped is still false, seek to that time.

For example, with media formats that support media fragment syntax , the fragment can be used to indicate a start position.

If there is no enabled audio track, then enable an audio track. This will cause a change event to be fired. If there is no selected video track, then select a video track.

The user agent is required to determine the duration of the media resource and go through this step before playing.

Fire an event named progress at the media element. If the user agent can keep the media resource loaded, then the algorithm will continue to its final step below, which aborts the algorithm.

Fatal network errors that occur after the user agent has established whether the current media resource is usable i.

Abort the overall resource selection algorithm. If the media data is corrupted Fatal errors in decoding the media data that occur after the user agent has established whether the current media resource is usable i.

If the media data fetching process is aborted by the user The fetching process is aborted by the user, e. These steps are not followed if the load method itself is invoked while these steps are running, as the steps above handle that particular kind of abort.

Fire an event named abort at the media element. If the media data can be fetched but has non-fatal errors or uses, in part, codecs that are unsupported, preventing the user agent from rendering the content completely correctly but not preventing playback altogether The server returning data that is partially usable but cannot be optimally rendered must cause the user agent to render just the bits it can handle, and ignore the rest.

If the media data is CORS-same-origin , run the steps to expose a media-resource-specific text track with the relevant data.

Cross-origin videos do not expose their subtitles, since that would allow attacks such as hostile sites reading subtitles from confidential videos on a user's intranet.

Final step: If the user agent ever reaches this step which can only happen if the entire resource gets loaded and kept available : abort the overall resource selection algorithm.

When a media element is to forget the media element's media-resource-specific tracks , the user agent must remove from the media element 's list of text tracks all the media-resource-specific text tracks , then empty the media element 's audioTracks attribute's AudioTrackList object, then empty the media element 's videoTracks attribute's VideoTrackList object.

No events in particular, no removetrack events are fired as part of this; the error and emptied events, fired by the algorithms that invoke this one, can be used instead.

The preload attribute is an enumerated attribute. The following table lists the keywords and states for the attribute — the keywords in the left column map to the states in the cell in the second column on the same row as the keyword.

The attribute can be changed even once the media resource is being buffered or played; the descriptions in the table below are to be interpreted with that in mind.

The empty string is also a valid keyword, and maps to the Automatic state. The attribute's missing value default and invalid value default are implementation-defined , though the Metadata state is suggested as a compromise between reducing server load and providing an optimal user experience.

Authors might switch the attribute from " none " or " metadata " to " auto " dynamically once the user begins playback. For example, on a page with many videos this might be used to indicate that the many videos are not to be downloaded unless requested, but that once one is requested it is to be downloaded aggressively.

The preload attribute is intended to provide a hint to the user agent about what the author thinks will lead to the best user experience.

The attribute may be ignored altogether, for example based on explicit user preferences or based on the available connectivity.

The preload IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name, limited to only known values. The autoplay attribute can override the preload attribute since if the media plays, it naturally has to buffer first, regardless of the hint given by the preload attribute.

Including both is not an error, however. Returns a TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource that the user agent has buffered.

The buffered attribute must return a new static normalized TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource , if any, that the user agent has buffered, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

Users agents must accurately determine the ranges available, even for media streams where this can only be determined by tedious inspection.

Typically this will be a single range anchored at the zero point, but if, e. Thus, a time position included within a range of the objects return by the buffered attribute at one time can end up being not included in the range s of objects returned by the same attribute at later times.

Returning a new object each time is a bad pattern for attribute getters and is only enshrined here as it would be costly to change it. It is not to be copied to new APIs.

Returns the length of the media resource , in seconds, assuming that the start of the media resource is at time zero. Returns the official playback position , in seconds.

A media resource has a media timeline that maps times in seconds to positions in the media resource. The origin of a timeline is its earliest defined position.

The duration of a timeline is its last defined position. Establishing the media timeline : if the media resource somehow specifies an explicit timeline whose origin is not negative i.

Whether the media resource can specify a timeline or not depends on the media resource's format. If the media resource specifies an explicit start time and date , then that time and date should be considered the zero point in the media timeline ; the timeline offset will be the time and date, exposed using the getStartDate method.

If the media resource has a discontinuous timeline, the user agent must extend the timeline used at the start of the resource across the entire resource, so that the media timeline of the media resource increases linearly starting from the earliest possible position as defined below , even if the underlying media data has out-of-order or even overlapping time codes.

For example, if two clips have been concatenated into one video file, but the video format exposes the original times for the two clips, the video data might expose a timeline that goes, say, However, the user agent would not expose those times; it would instead expose the times as In the rare case of a media resource that does not have an explicit timeline, the zero time on the media timeline should correspond to the first frame of the media resource.

In the even rarer case of a media resource with no explicit timings of any kind, not even frame durations, the user agent must itself determine the time for each frame in an implementation-defined manner.

An example of a file format with no explicit timeline but with explicit frame durations is the Animated GIF format. If, in the case of a resource with no timing information, the user agent will nonetheless be able to seek to an earlier point than the first frame originally provided by the server, then the zero time should correspond to the earliest seekable time of the media resource ; otherwise, it should correspond to the first frame received from the server the point in the media resource at which the user agent began receiving the stream.

At the time of writing, there is no known format that lacks explicit frame time offsets yet still supports seeking to a frame before the first frame sent by the server.

Consider a stream from a TV broadcaster, which begins streaming on a sunny Friday afternoon in October, and always sends connecting user agents the media data on the same media timeline, with its zero time set to the start of this stream.

Months later, user agents connecting to this stream will find that the first frame they receive has a time with millions of seconds.

The getStartDate method would always return the date that the broadcast started; this would allow controllers to display real times in their scrubber e.

Consider a stream that carries a video with several concatenated fragments, broadcast by a server that does not allow user agents to request specific times but instead just streams the video data in a predetermined order, with the first frame delivered always being identified as the frame with time zero.

If a user agent connects to this stream and receives fragments defined as covering timestamps UTC to UTC and UTC to UTC, it would expose this with a media timeline starting at 0s and extending to 3,s one hour.

Assuming the streaming server disconnected at the end of the second clip, the duration attribute would then return 3, However, if a different user agent connected five minutes later, it would presumably receive fragments covering timestamps UTC to UTC and UTC to UTC, and would expose this with a media timeline starting at 0s and extending to 3,s fifty five minutes.

In this case, the getStartDate method would return a Date object with a time corresponding to UTC.

In both of these examples, the seekable attribute would give the ranges that the controller would want to actually display in its UI; typically, if the servers don't support seeking to arbitrary times, this would be the range of time from the moment the user agent connected to the stream up to the latest frame that the user agent has obtained; however, if the user agent starts discarding earlier information, the actual range might be shorter.

In any case, the user agent must ensure that the earliest possible position as defined below using the established media timeline , is greater than or equal to zero.

The media timeline also has an associated clock. Which clock is used is user-agent defined, and may be media resource -dependent, but it should approximate the user's wall clock.

Media elements have a current playback position , which must initially i. The current playback position is a time on the media timeline.

Media elements also have an official playback position , which must initially be set to zero seconds. The official playback position is an approximation of the current playback position that is kept stable while scripts are running.

Media elements also have a default playback start position , which must initially be set to zero seconds. This time is used to allow the element to be seeked even before the media is loaded.

Each media element has a show poster flag. When a media element is created, this flag must be set to true. This flag is used to control when the user agent is to show a poster frame for a video element instead of showing the video contents.

The returned value must be expressed in seconds. The new value must be interpreted as being in seconds. If the media resource is a streaming resource, then the user agent might be unable to obtain certain parts of the resource after it has expired from its buffer.

Similarly, some media resources might have a media timeline that doesn't start at zero. The earliest possible position is the earliest position in the stream or resource that the user agent can ever obtain again.

It is also a time on the media timeline. The earliest possible position is not explicitly exposed in the API; it corresponds to the start time of the first range in the seekable attribute's TimeRanges object, if any, or the current playback position otherwise.

When the earliest possible position changes, then: if the current playback position is before the earliest possible position , the user agent must seek to the earliest possible position ; otherwise, if the user agent has not fired a timeupdate event at the element in the past 15 to ms and is not still running event handlers for such an event, then the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

Because of the above requirement and the requirement in the resource fetch algorithm that kicks in when the metadata of the clip becomes known , the current playback position can never be less than the earliest possible position.

If at any time the user agent learns that an audio or video track has ended and all media data relating to that track corresponds to parts of the media timeline that are before the earliest possible position , the user agent may queue a media element task given the media element to run these steps:.

Fire an event named removetrack at the media element 's aforementioned AudioTrackList or VideoTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the AudioTrack or VideoTrack object representing the track.

If no media data is available, then the attributes must return the Not-a-Number NaN value. If the media resource is not known to be bounded e.

When the length of the media resource changes to a known value e. The event is not fired when the duration is reset as part of loading a new media resource.

If the duration is changed such that the current playback position ends up being greater than the time of the end of the media resource , then the user agent must also seek to the time of the end of the media resource.

If an "infinite" stream ends for some reason, then the duration would change from positive Infinity to the time of the last frame or sample in the stream, and the durationchange event would be fired.

Similarly, if the user agent initially estimated the media resource 's duration instead of determining it precisely, and later revises the estimate based on new information, then the duration would change and the durationchange event would be fired.

Some video files also have an explicit date and time corresponding to the zero time in the media timeline , known as the timeline offset.

Initially, the timeline offset must be set to Not-a-Number NaN. The getStartDate method must return a new Date object representing the current timeline offset.

The loop attribute is a boolean attribute that, if specified, indicates that the media element is to seek back to the start of the media resource upon reaching the end.

The loop IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name. Returns a value that expresses the current state of the element with respect to rendering the current playback position , from the codes in the list below.

Media elements have a ready state , which describes to what degree they are ready to be rendered at the current playback position.

The possible values are as follows; the ready state of a media element at any particular time is the greatest value describing the state of the element:.

No information regarding the media resource is available. No data for the current playback position is available. In the case of a video element, the dimensions of the video are also available.

No media data is available for the immediate current playback position. For example, in video this corresponds to the user agent having data from the current frame, but not the next frame, when the current playback position is at the end of the current frame; and to when playback has ended.

For example, in video this corresponds to the user agent having data for at least the current frame and the next frame when the current playback position is at the instant in time between the two frames, or to the user agent having the video data for the current frame and audio data to keep playing at least a little when the current playback position is in the middle of a frame.

The user agent cannot be in this state if playback has ended , as the current playback position can never advance in this case.

The only time that distinction really matters is when a page provides an interface for "frame-by-frame" navigation. Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named loadedmetadata at the element.

Before this task is run, as part of the event loop mechanism, the rendering will have been updated to resize the video element if appropriate.

If this is the first time this occurs for this media element since the load algorithm was last invoked, the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named loadeddata at the element.

The user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named canplay at the element.

If the element's paused attribute is false, the user agent must notify about playing for the element. The user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named canplaythrough at the element.

Each media element has a show poster flag. When a media element is created, this flag must be set to true.

This flag is used to control when the user agent is to show a poster frame for a video element instead of showing the video contents.

The returned value must be expressed in seconds. The new value must be interpreted as being in seconds.

If the media resource is a streaming resource, then the user agent might be unable to obtain certain parts of the resource after it has expired from its buffer.

Similarly, some media resources might have a media timeline that doesn't start at zero. The earliest possible position is the earliest position in the stream or resource that the user agent can ever obtain again.

It is also a time on the media timeline. The earliest possible position is not explicitly exposed in the API; it corresponds to the start time of the first range in the seekable attribute's TimeRanges object, if any, or the current playback position otherwise.

When the earliest possible position changes, then: if the current playback position is before the earliest possible position , the user agent must seek to the earliest possible position ; otherwise, if the user agent has not fired a timeupdate event at the element in the past 15 to ms and is not still running event handlers for such an event, then the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

Because of the above requirement and the requirement in the resource fetch algorithm that kicks in when the metadata of the clip becomes known , the current playback position can never be less than the earliest possible position.

If at any time the user agent learns that an audio or video track has ended and all media data relating to that track corresponds to parts of the media timeline that are before the earliest possible position , the user agent may queue a media element task given the media element to run these steps:.

Fire an event named removetrack at the media element 's aforementioned AudioTrackList or VideoTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the AudioTrack or VideoTrack object representing the track.

If no media data is available, then the attributes must return the Not-a-Number NaN value. If the media resource is not known to be bounded e.

When the length of the media resource changes to a known value e. The event is not fired when the duration is reset as part of loading a new media resource.

If the duration is changed such that the current playback position ends up being greater than the time of the end of the media resource , then the user agent must also seek to the time of the end of the media resource.

If an "infinite" stream ends for some reason, then the duration would change from positive Infinity to the time of the last frame or sample in the stream, and the durationchange event would be fired.

Similarly, if the user agent initially estimated the media resource 's duration instead of determining it precisely, and later revises the estimate based on new information, then the duration would change and the durationchange event would be fired.

Some video files also have an explicit date and time corresponding to the zero time in the media timeline , known as the timeline offset. Initially, the timeline offset must be set to Not-a-Number NaN.

The getStartDate method must return a new Date object representing the current timeline offset. The loop attribute is a boolean attribute that, if specified, indicates that the media element is to seek back to the start of the media resource upon reaching the end.

The loop IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name. Returns a value that expresses the current state of the element with respect to rendering the current playback position , from the codes in the list below.

Media elements have a ready state , which describes to what degree they are ready to be rendered at the current playback position.

The possible values are as follows; the ready state of a media element at any particular time is the greatest value describing the state of the element:.

No information regarding the media resource is available. No data for the current playback position is available. In the case of a video element, the dimensions of the video are also available.

No media data is available for the immediate current playback position. For example, in video this corresponds to the user agent having data from the current frame, but not the next frame, when the current playback position is at the end of the current frame; and to when playback has ended.

For example, in video this corresponds to the user agent having data for at least the current frame and the next frame when the current playback position is at the instant in time between the two frames, or to the user agent having the video data for the current frame and audio data to keep playing at least a little when the current playback position is in the middle of a frame.

The user agent cannot be in this state if playback has ended , as the current playback position can never advance in this case. The only time that distinction really matters is when a page provides an interface for "frame-by-frame" navigation.

Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named loadedmetadata at the element. Before this task is run, as part of the event loop mechanism, the rendering will have been updated to resize the video element if appropriate.

If this is the first time this occurs for this media element since the load algorithm was last invoked, the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named loadeddata at the element.

The user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named canplay at the element. If the element's paused attribute is false, the user agent must notify about playing for the element.

The user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named canplaythrough at the element.

If the element is not eligible for autoplay , then the user agent must abort these substeps. Alternatively, if the element is a video element, the user agent may start observing whether the element intersects the viewport.

When the element starts intersecting the viewport , if the element is still eligible for autoplay , run the substeps above. Optionally, when the element stops intersecting the viewport , if the can autoplay flag is still true and the autoplay attribute is still specified, run the following substeps:.

The substeps for playing and pausing can run multiple times as the element starts or stops intersecting the viewport , as long as the can autoplay flag is true.

User agents do not need to support autoplay, and it is suggested that user agents honor user preferences on the matter.

Authors are urged to use the autoplay attribute rather than using script to force the video to play, so as to allow the user to override the behavior if so desired.

It is possible for the ready state of a media element to jump between these states discontinuously. The autoplay attribute is a boolean attribute.

When present, the user agent as described in the algorithm described herein will automatically begin playback of the media resource as soon as it can do so without stopping.

Authors are urged to use the autoplay attribute rather than using script to trigger automatic playback, as this allows the user to override the automatic playback when it is not desired, e.

Authors are also encouraged to consider not using the automatic playback behavior at all, and instead to let the user agent wait for the user to start playback explicitly.

Returns true if playback has reached the end of the media resource. Returns the default rate of playback, for when the user is not fast-forwarding or reversing through the media resource.

The default rate has no direct effect on playback, but if the user switches to a fast-forward mode, when they return to the normal playback mode, it is expected that the rate of playback will be returned to the default rate of playback.

Returns true if pitch-preserving algorithms are used when the playbackRate is not 1. The default value is true. Can be set to false to have the media resource 's audio pitch change up or down depending on the playbackRate.

This is useful for aesthetic and performance reasons. Returns a TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource that the user agent has played.

Sets the paused attribute to false, loading the media resource and beginning playback if necessary. If the playback had ended, will restart it from the start.

Sets the paused attribute to true, loading the media resource if necessary. The attribute must initially be true. A media element is said to be potentially playing when its paused attribute is false, the element has not ended playback , playback has not stopped due to errors , and the element is not a blocked media element.

A media element is said to be eligible for autoplay when all of the following conditions are met:. A media element is said to be allowed to play if the user agent and the system allow media playback in the current context.

For example, a user agent could allow playback only when the media element 's Window object has transient activation , but an exception could be made to allow playback while muted.

A media element is said to have ended playback when:. Either: The current playback position is the end of the media resource , and The direction of playback is forwards, and The media element does not have a loop attribute specified.

Or: The current playback position is the earliest possible position , and The direction of playback is backwards. It is possible for a media element to have both ended playback and paused for user interaction at the same time.

When a media element that is potentially playing stops playing because it has paused for user interaction , the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

One example of when a media element would be paused for in-band content is when the user agent is playing audio descriptions from an external WebVTT file, and the synthesized speech generated for a cue is longer than the time between the text track cue start time and the text track cue end time.

When the current playback position reaches the end of the media resource when the direction of playback is forwards, then the user agent must follow these steps:.

If the media element has a loop attribute specified, then seek to the earliest possible position of the media resource and return. As defined above, the ended IDL attribute starts returning true once the event loop returns to step 1.

Queue a media element task given the media element and the following steps:. Fire an event named timeupdate at the media element.

If the media element has ended playback , the direction of playback is forwards, and paused is false, then:.

Fire an event named pause at the media element. Fire an event named ended at the media element. When the current playback position reaches the earliest possible position of the media resource when the direction of playback is backwards, then the user agent must only queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

The word "reaches" here does not imply that the current playback position needs to have changed during normal playback; it could be via seeking , for instance.

The defaultPlaybackRate attribute gives the desired speed at which the media resource is to play, as a multiple of its intrinsic speed.

The attribute is mutable: on getting it must return the last value it was set to, or 1. The defaultPlaybackRate is used by the user agent when it exposes a user interface to the user.

The playbackRate attribute gives the effective playback rate, which is the speed at which the media resource plays, as a multiple of its intrinsic speed.

If it is not equal to the defaultPlaybackRate , then the implication is that the user is using a feature such as fast forward or slow motion playback.

Set playbackRate to the new value, and if the element is potentially playing , change the playback speed. When the defaultPlaybackRate or playbackRate attributes change value either by being set by script or by being changed directly by the user agent, e.

The user agent must process attribute changes smoothly and must not introduce any perceivable gaps or muting of playback in response.

The preservesPitch getter steps are to return true if a pitch-preserving algorithm is in effect during playback.

The setter steps are to correspondingly switch the pitch-preserving algorithm on or off, without any perceivable gaps or muting of playback.

By default, such a pitch-preserving algorithm must be in effect i. The played attribute must return a new static normalized TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of points on the media timeline of the media resource reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, if any, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

Each media element has a list of pending play promises , which must initially be empty. To take pending play promises for a media element , the user agent must run the following steps:.

Let promises be an empty list of promises. Copy the media element 's list of pending play promises to promises. Clear the media element 's list of pending play promises.

Return promises. To resolve pending play promises for a media element with a list of promises promises , the user agent must resolve each promise in promises with undefined.

To reject pending play promises for a media element with a list of promise promises and an exception name error , the user agent must reject each promise in promises with error.

To notify about playing for a media element , the user agent must run the following steps:. Take pending play promises and let promises be the result.

Queue a media element task given the element and the following steps:. Fire an event named playing at the element. Resolve pending play promises with promises.

This means that the dedicated media source failure steps have run. Playback is not possible until the media element load algorithm clears the error attribute.

Let promise be a new promise and append promise to the list of pending play promises. Run the internal play steps for the media element.

Return promise. The internal play steps for a media element are as follows:. If the playback has ended and the direction of playback is forwards, seek to the earliest possible position of the media resource.

This will cause the user agent to queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the media element.

If the media element 's paused attribute is true, then:. Change the value of paused to false. If the show poster flag is true, set the element's show poster flag to false and run the time marches on steps.

Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named play at the element. The media element is already playing. However, it's possible that promise will be rejected before the queued task is run.

Set the media element 's can autoplay flag to false. Run the internal pause steps for the media element. The internal pause steps for a media element are as follows:.

If the media element 's paused attribute is false, run the following steps:. Change the value of paused to true. Queue a media element task on the given the media element and the following steps:.

Fire an event named timeupdate at the element. Fire an event named pause at the element. Set the official playback position to the current playback position.

If the element's playbackRate is positive or zero, then the direction of playback is forwards. Otherwise, it is backwards. When a media element is potentially playing and its Document is a fully active Document , its current playback position must increase monotonically at the element's playbackRate units of media time per unit time of the media timeline 's clock.

This specification always refers to this as an increase , but that increase could actually be a de crease if the element's playbackRate is negative.

The element's playbackRate can be 0. This specification doesn't define how the user agent achieves the appropriate playback rate — depending on the protocol and media available, it is plausible that the user agent could negotiate with the server to have the server provide the media data at the appropriate rate, so that except for the period between when the rate is changed and when the server updates the stream's playback rate the client doesn't actually have to drop or interpolate any frames.

Any time the user agent provides a stable state , the official playback position must be set to the current playback position.

While the direction of playback is backwards, any corresponding audio must be muted. While the element's playbackRate is so low or so high that the user agent cannot play audio usefully, the corresponding audio must also be muted.

If the element's playbackRate is not 1. Otherwise, the user agent must speed up or slow down the audio without any pitch adjustment. When a media element is potentially playing , its audio data played must be synchronized with the current playback position , at the element's effective media volume.

When a media element is not potentially playing , audio must not play for the element. Media elements that are potentially playing while not in a document must not play any video, but should play any audio component.

Media elements must not stop playing just because all references to them have been removed; only once a media element is in a state where no further audio could ever be played by that element may the element be garbage collected.

It is possible for an element to which no explicit references exist to play audio, even if such an element is not still actively playing: for instance, it could be unpaused but stalled waiting for content to buffer, or it could be still buffering, but with a suspend event listener that begins playback.

Even a media element whose media resource has no audio tracks could eventually play audio again if it had an event listener that changes the media resource.

Each media element has a list of newly introduced cues , which must be initially empty. Whenever a text track cue is added to the list of cues of a text track that is in the list of text tracks for a media element , that cue must be added to the media element 's list of newly introduced cues.

Whenever a text track is added to the list of text tracks for a media element , all of the cues in that text track 's list of cues must be added to the media element 's list of newly introduced cues.

When a media element 's list of newly introduced cues has new cues added while the media element 's show poster flag is not set, then the user agent must run the time marches on steps.

When a text track cue is removed from the list of cues of a text track that is in the list of text tracks for a media element , and whenever a text track is removed from the list of text tracks of a media element , if the media element 's show poster flag is not set, then the user agent must run the time marches on steps.

When the current playback position of a media element changes e. To support use cases that depend on the timing accuracy of cue event firing, such as synchronizing captions with shot changes in a video, user agents should fire cue events as close as possible to their position on the media timeline, and ideally within 20 milliseconds.

If the current playback position changes while the steps are running, then the user agent must wait for the steps to complete, and then must immediately rerun the steps.

These steps are thus run as often as possible or needed. If one iteration takes a long time, this can cause short duration cues to be skipped over as the user agent rushes ahead to "catch up", so these cues will not appear in the activeCues list.

Let current cues be a list of cues , initialized to contain all the cues of all the hidden or showing text tracks of the media element not the disabled ones whose start times are less than or equal to the current playback position and whose end times are greater than the current playback position.

Let other cues be a list of cues , initialized to contain all the cues of hidden and showing text tracks of the media element that are not present in current cues.

Let last time be the current playback position at the time this algorithm was last run for this media element , if this is not the first time it has run.

If the current playback position has, since the last time this algorithm was run, only changed through its usual monotonic increase during normal playback, then let missed cues be the list of cues in other cues whose start times are greater than or equal to last time and whose end times are less than or equal to the current playback position.

Otherwise, let missed cues be an empty list. Remove all the cues in missed cues that are also in the media element 's list of newly introduced cues , and then empty the element's list of newly introduced cues.

If the time was reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, and if the user agent has not fired a timeupdate event at the element in the past 15 to ms and is not still running event handlers for such an event, then the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named timeupdate at the element.

In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, relevant events get fired as part of the overall process of changing the current playback position. The event thus is not to be fired faster than about 66Hz or slower than 4Hz assuming the event handlers don't take longer than ms to run.

User agents are encouraged to vary the frequency of the event based on the system load and the average cost of processing the event each time, so that the UI updates are not any more frequent than the user agent can comfortably handle while decoding the video.

If all of the cues in current cues have their text track cue active flag set, none of the cues in other cues have their text track cue active flag set, and missed cues is empty, then return.

If the time was reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, and there are cues in other cues that have their text track cue pause-on-exit flag set and that either have their text track cue active flag set or are also in missed cues , then immediately pause the media element.

In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, playback is not paused by going past the end time of a cue , even if that cue has its text track cue pause-on-exit flag set.

Let events be a list of tasks , initially empty. Each task in this list will be associated with a text track , a text track cue , and a time, which are used to sort the list before the tasks are queued.

Let affected tracks be a list of text tracks , initially empty. When the steps below say to prepare an event named event for a text track cue target with a time time , the user agent must run these steps:.

Let track be the text track with which the text track cue target is associated. Create a task to fire an event named event at target.

Add the newly created task to events , associated with the time time , the text track track , and the text track cue target.

Add track to affected tracks. For each text track cue in missed cues , prepare an event named enter for the TextTrackCue object with the text track cue start time.

For each text track cue in other cues that either has its text track cue active flag set or is in missed cues , prepare an event named exit for the TextTrackCue object with the later of the text track cue end time and the text track cue start time.

For each text track cue in current cues that does not have its text track cue active flag set, prepare an event named enter for the TextTrackCue object with the text track cue start time.

Sort the tasks in events in ascending time order tasks with earlier times first. Further sort tasks in events that have the same time by the relative text track cue order of the text track cues associated with these tasks.

Finally, sort tasks in events that have the same time and same text track cue order by placing tasks that fire enter events before those that fire exit events.

Queue a media element task given the media element for each task in events , in list order. Sort affected tracks in the same order as the text tracks appear in the media element 's list of text tracks , and remove duplicates.

For each text track in affected tracks , in the list order, queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named cuechange at the TextTrack object, and, if the text track has a corresponding track element, to then fire an event named cuechange at the track element as well.

Set the text track cue active flag of all the cues in the current cues , and unset the text track cue active flag of all the cues in the other cues.

Run the rules for updating the text track rendering of each of the text tracks in affected tracks that are showing , providing the text track 's text track language as the fallback language if it is not the empty string.

If the media element 's node document stops being a fully active document, then the playback will stop until the document is active again.

When a media element is removed from a Document , the user agent must run the following steps:. Await a stable state , allowing the task that removed the media element from the Document to continue.

The synchronous section consists of all the remaining steps of this algorithm. Returns a TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource to which it is possible for the user agent to seek.

Seeks to near the given time as fast as possible, trading precision for speed. To seek to a precise time, use the currentTime attribute.

The seeking attribute must initially have the value false. Chrome Android? WebView Android? Samsung Internet? Opera Android?

The fastSeek method must seek to the time given by the method's argument, with the approximate-for-speed flag set. When the user agent is required to seek to a particular new playback position in the media resource , optionally with the approximate-for-speed flag set, it means that the user agent must run the following steps.

This algorithm interacts closely with the event loop mechanism; in particular, it has a synchronous section which is triggered as part of the event loop algorithm.

Set the media element 's show poster flag to false. If the element's seeking IDL attribute is true, then another instance of this algorithm is already running.

Abort that other instance of the algorithm without waiting for the step that it is running to complete.

Set the seeking IDL attribute to true. The remainder of these steps must be run in parallel. If the new playback position is later than the end of the media resource , then let it be the end of the media resource instead.

If the new playback position is less than the earliest possible position , let it be that position instead. If the possibly now changed new playback position is not in one of the ranges given in the seekable attribute, then let it be the position in one of the ranges given in the seekable attribute that is the nearest to the new playback position.

If two positions both satisfy that constraint i. If there are no ranges given in the seekable attribute then set the seeking IDL attribute to false and return.

If the approximate-for-speed flag is set, adjust the new playback position to a value that will allow for playback to resume promptly.

If new playback position before this step is before current playback position , then the adjusted new playback position must also be before the current playback position.

Similarly, if the new playback position before this step is after current playback position , then the adjusted new playback position must also be after the current playback position.

For example, the user agent could snap to a nearby key frame, so that it doesn't have to spend time decoding then discarding intermediate frames before resuming playback.

Queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named seeking at the element. Set the current playback position to the new playback position.

This step sets the current playback position , and thus can immediately trigger other conditions, such as the rules regarding when playback " reaches the end of the media resource " part of the logic that handles looping , even before the user agent is actually able to render the media data for that position as determined in the next step.

The currentTime attribute returns the official playback position , not the current playback position , and therefore gets updated before script execution, separate from this algorithm.

Wait until the user agent has established whether or not the media data for the new playback position is available, and, if it is, until it has decoded enough data to play back that position.

The seekable attribute must return a new static normalized TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource , if any, that the user agent is able to seek to, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

If the user agent can seek to anywhere in the media resource , e. The range might be continuously changing, e. User agents should adopt a very liberal and optimistic view of what is seekable.

User agents should also buffer recent content where possible to enable seeking to be fast. A browser could implement this by only buffering the current frame and data obtained for subsequent frames, never allow seeking, except for seeking to the very start by restarting the playback.

However, this would be a poor implementation. A high quality implementation would buffer the last few minutes of content or more, if sufficient storage space is available , allowing the user to jump back and rewatch something surprising without any latency, and would in addition allow arbitrary seeking by reloading the file from the start if necessary, which would be slower but still more convenient than having to literally restart the video and watch it all the way through just to get to an earlier unbuffered spot.

Media resources might be internally scripted or interactive. Thus, a media element could play in a non-linear fashion. If this happens, the user agent must act as if the algorithm for seeking was used whenever the current playback position changes in a discontinuous fashion so that the relevant events fire.

A media resource can have multiple embedded audio and video tracks. For example, in addition to the primary video and audio tracks, a media resource could have foreign-language dubbed dialogues, director's commentaries, audio descriptions, alternative angles, or sign-language overlays.

Returns an AudioTrackList object representing the audio tracks available in the media resource. Returns a VideoTrackList object representing the video tracks available in the media resource.

There are only ever one AudioTrackList object and one VideoTrackList object per media element , even if another media resource is loaded into the element: the objects are reused.

The AudioTrack and VideoTrack objects are not, though. AudioTrackList Support in all current engines. Returns the specified AudioTrack or VideoTrack object.

Returns the AudioTrack or VideoTrack object with the given identifier, or null if no track has that identifier. Returns the ID of the given track.

This is the ID that can be used with a fragment if the format supports media fragment syntax , and that can be used with the getTrackById method.

Returns the category the given track falls into. The possible track categories are given below. Can be set, to change whether the track is enabled or not.

If multiple audio tracks are enabled simultaneously, they are mixed. Can be set, to change whether the track is selected or not.

Either zero or one video track is selected; selecting a new track while a previous one is selected will unselect the previous one.

An AudioTrackList object represents a dynamic list of zero or more audio tracks, of which zero or more can be enabled at a time.

Each audio track is represented by an AudioTrack object. A VideoTrackList object represents a dynamic list of zero or more video tracks, of which zero or one can be selected at a time.

Each video track is represented by a VideoTrack object. If the media resource is in a format that defines an order, then that order must be used; otherwise, the order must be the relative order in which the tracks are declared in the media resource.

The order used is called the natural order of the list. Each track in one of these objects thus has an index; the first has the index 0, and each subsequent track is numbered one higher than the previous one.

If a media resource dynamically adds or removes audio or video tracks, then the indices of the tracks will change dynamically.

If the media resource changes entirely, then all the previous tracks will be removed and replaced with new tracks. The supported property indices of AudioTrackList and VideoTrackList objects at any instant are the numbers from zero to the number of tracks represented by the respective object minus one, if any tracks are represented.

To determine the value of an indexed property for a given index index in an AudioTrackList or VideoTrackList object list , the user agent must return the AudioTrack or VideoTrack object that represents the index th track in list.

When no tracks match the given argument, the methods must return null. The AudioTrack and VideoTrack objects represent specific tracks of a media resource.

Each track can have an identifier, category, label, and language. These aspects of a track are permanent for the lifetime of the track; even if a track is removed from a media resource 's AudioTrackList or VideoTrackList objects, those aspects do not change.

In addition, AudioTrack objects can each be enabled or disabled; this is the audio track's enabled state.

When an AudioTrack is created, its enabled state must be set to false disabled. The resource fetch algorithm can override this. Similarly, a single VideoTrack object per VideoTrackList object can be selected, this is the video track's selection state.

When a VideoTrack is created, its selection state must be set to false not selected. If the media resource is in a format that supports media fragment syntax , the identifier returned for a particular track must be the same identifier that would enable the track if used as the name of a track in the track dimension of such a fragment.

For example, in Ogg files, this would be the Name header field of the track. The category of a track is the string given in the first column of the table below that is the most appropriate for the track based on the definitions in the table's second and third columns, as determined by the metadata included in the track in the media resource.

The cell in the third column of a row says what the category given in the cell in the first column of that row applies to; a category is only appropriate for an audio track if it applies to audio tracks, and a category is only appropriate for video tracks if it applies to video tracks.

Categories must only be returned for AudioTrack objects if they are appropriate for audio, and must only be returned for VideoTrack objects if they are appropriate for video.

For Ogg files, the Role header field of the track gives the relevant metadata. For WebM, only the FlagDefault element currently maps to a value.

If the user agent is not able to express that language as a BCP 47 language tag for example because the language information in the media resource 's format is a free-form string without a defined interpretation , then the method must return the empty string, as if the track had no language.

On setting, it must enable the track if the new value is true, and disable it otherwise. If the track is no longer in an AudioTrackList object, then the track being enabled or disabled has no effect beyond changing the value of the attribute on the AudioTrack object.

Whenever an audio track in an AudioTrackList that was disabled is enabled, and whenever one that was enabled is disabled, the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named change at the AudioTrackList object.

An audio track that has no data for a particular position on the media timeline , or that does not exist at that position, must be interpreted as being silent at that point on the timeline.

On setting, it must select the track if the new value is true, and unselect it otherwise. If the track is in a VideoTrackList , then all the other VideoTrack objects in that list must be unselected.

If the track is no longer in a VideoTrackList object, then the track being selected or unselected has no effect beyond changing the value of the attribute on the VideoTrack object.

Whenever a track in a VideoTrackList that was previously not selected is selected, and whenever the selected track in a VideoTrackList is unselected without a new track being selected in its stead, the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named change at the VideoTrackList object.

This task must be queued before the task that fires the resize event, if any. A video track that has no data for a particular position on the media timeline must be interpreted as being transparent black at that point on the timeline, with the same dimensions as the last frame before that position, or, if the position is before all the data for that track, the same dimensions as the first frame for that track.

A track that does not exist at all at the current position must be treated as if it existed but had no data. For instance, if a video has a track that is only introduced after one hour of playback, and the user selects that track then goes back to the start, then the user agent will act as if that track started at the start of the media resource but was simply transparent until one hour in.

The following are the event handlers and their corresponding event handler event types that must be supported, as event handler IDL attributes , by all objects implementing the AudioTrackList and VideoTrackList interfaces:.

The format of the fragment depends on the MIME type of the media resource. In this example, a video that uses a format that supports media fragment syntax is embedded in such a way that the alternative angles labeled "Alternative" are enabled instead of the default video track.

A media element can have a group of associated text tracks , known as the media element 's list of text tracks. The text tracks are sorted as follows:.

This decides how the track is handled by the user agent. The kind is represented by a string. The possible strings are:.

The kind of track can change dynamically, in the case of a text track corresponding to a track element. The label of a track can change dynamically, in the case of a text track corresponding to a track element.

When a text track label is the empty string, the user agent should automatically generate an appropriate label from the text track's other properties e.

This automatically-generated label is not exposed in the API. This is a string extracted from the media resource specifically for in-band metadata tracks to enable such tracks to be dispatched to different scripts in the document.

For example, a traditional TV station broadcast streamed on the web and augmented with web-specific interactive features could include text tracks with metadata for ad targeting, trivia game data during game shows, player states during sports games, recipe information during food programs, and so forth.

As each program starts and ends, new tracks might be added or removed from the stream, and as each one is added, the user agent could bind them to dedicated script modules using the value of this attribute.

Other than for in-band metadata text tracks, the in-band metadata track dispatch type is the empty string.

How this value is populated for different media formats is described in steps to expose a media-resource-specific text track.

This is a string a BCP 47 language tag representing the language of the text track's cues. The language of a text track can change dynamically, in the case of a text track corresponding to a track element.

Indicates that the text track is loading and there have been no fatal errors encountered so far. Further cues might still be added to the track by the parser.

Indicates that the text track was enabled, but when the user agent attempted to obtain it, this failed in some way e.

URL could not be parsed , network error, unknown text track format. Some or all of the cues are likely missing and will not be obtained.

The readiness state of a text track changes dynamically as the track is obtained. Indicates that the text track is not active. Other than for the purposes of exposing the track in the DOM, the user agent is ignoring the text track.

No cues are active, no events are fired, and the user agent will not attempt to obtain the track's cues. Indicates that the text track is active, but that the user agent is not actively displaying the cues.

If no attempt has yet been made to obtain the track's cues, the user agent will perform such an attempt momentarily. The user agent is maintaining a list of which cues are active, and events are being fired accordingly.

Indicates that the text track is active. In addition, for text tracks whose kind is subtitles or captions , the cues are being overlaid on the video as appropriate; for text tracks whose kind is descriptions , the user agent is making the cues available to the user in a non-visual fashion; and for text tracks whose kind is chapters , the user agent is making available to the user a mechanism by which the user can navigate to any point in the media resource by selecting a cue.

A list of text track cues , along with rules for updating the text track rendering. The list of cues of a text track can change dynamically, either because the text track has not yet been loaded or is still loading , or due to DOM manipulation.

Each text track has a corresponding TextTrack object. Each media element has a list of pending text tracks , which must initially be empty, a blocked-on-parser flag, which must initially be false, and a did-perform-automatic-track-selection flag, which must also initially be false.

When the user agent is required to populate the list of pending text tracks of a media element , the user agent must add to the element's list of pending text tracks each text track in the element's list of text tracks whose text track mode is not disabled and whose text track readiness state is loading.

Whenever a track element's parent node changes, the user agent must remove the corresponding text track from any list of pending text tracks that it is in.

Whenever a text track 's text track readiness state changes to either loaded or failed to load , the user agent must remove it from any list of pending text tracks that it is in.

When a media element is created by an HTML parser or XML parser , the user agent must set the element's blocked-on-parser flag to true.

When a media element is popped off the stack of open elements of an HTML parser or XML parser , the user agent must honor user preferences for automatic text track selection , populate the list of pending text tracks , and set the element's blocked-on-parser flag to false.

The text tracks of a media element are ready when both the element's list of pending text tracks is empty and the element's blocked-on-parser flag is false.

Each media element has a pending text track change notification flag , which must initially be unset. Whenever a text track that is in a media element 's list of text tracks has its text track mode change value, the user agent must run the following steps for the media element :.

If the media element 's pending text track change notification flag is set, return. Set the media element 's pending text track change notification flag.

Queue a media element task given the media element to run these steps:. Unset the media element 's pending text track change notification flag.

Fire an event named change at the media element 's textTracks attribute's TextTrackList object. If the media element 's show poster flag is not set, run the time marches on steps.

The task source for the tasks listed in this section is the DOM manipulation task source. A text track cue is the unit of time-sensitive data in a text track , corresponding for instance for subtitles and captions to the text that appears at a particular time and disappears at another time.

Each text track cue consists of:. The time, in seconds and fractions of a second, that describes the beginning of the range of the media data to which the cue applies.

The time, in seconds and fractions of a second, that describes the end of the range of the media data to which the cue applies. A boolean indicating whether playback of the media resource is to pause when the end of the range to which the cue applies is reached.

Additional fields, as needed for the format, including the actual data of the cue. For example, WebVTT has a text track cue writing direction and so forth.

The text track cue start time and text track cue end time can be negative. The current playback position can never be negative, though, so cues entirely before time zero cannot be active.

A text track cue is associated with rules for updating the text track rendering , as defined by the specification for the specific kind of text track cue.

These rules are used specifically when the object representing the cue is added to a TextTrack object using the addCue method. In addition, each text track cue has two pieces of dynamic information:.

This flag must be initially unset. The flag is used to ensure events are fired appropriately when the cue becomes active or inactive, and to make sure the right cues are rendered.

When the flag is unset in this way for one or more cues in text tracks that were showing prior to the relevant incident, the user agent must, after having unset the flag for all the affected cues, apply the rules for updating the text track rendering of those text tracks.

This is used as part of the rendering model, to keep cues in a consistent position. It must initially be empty. Whenever the text track cue active flag is unset, the user agent must empty the text track cue display state.

The text track cues of a media element 's text tracks are ordered relative to each other in the text track cue order , which is determined as follows: first group the cues by their text track , with the groups being sorted in the same order as their text tracks appear in the media element 's list of text tracks ; then, within each group, cues must be sorted by their start time , earliest first; then, any cues with the same start time must be sorted by their end time , latest first; and finally, any cues with identical end times must be sorted in the order they were last added to their respective text track list of cues , oldest first so e.

A media-resource-specific text track is a text track that corresponds to data found in the media resource. Rules for processing and rendering such data are defined by the relevant specifications, e.

When a media resource contains data that the user agent recognizes and supports as being equivalent to a text track , the user agent runs the steps to expose a media-resource-specific text track with the relevant data, as follows.

Associate the relevant data with a new text track and its corresponding new TextTrack object. The text track is a media-resource-specific text track.

Set the new text track 's kind , label , and language based on the semantics of the relevant data, as defined by the relevant specification.

If there is no label in that data, then the label must be set to the empty string. Associate the text track list of cues with the rules for updating the text track rendering appropriate for the format in question.

If the new text track 's kind is chapters or metadata , then set the text track in-band metadata track dispatch type as follows, based on the type of the media resource :.

Populate the new text track 's list of cues with the cues parsed so far, following the guidelines for exposing cues , and begin updating it dynamically as necessary.

Set the new text track 's readiness state to loaded. Set the new text track 's mode to the mode consistent with the user's preferences and the requirements of the relevant specification for the data.

For instance, if there are no other active subtitles, and this is a forced subtitle track a subtitle track giving subtitles in the audio track's primary language, but only for audio that is actually in another language , then those subtitles might be activated here.

Add the new text track to the media element 's list of text tracks. Fire an event named addtrack at the media element 's textTracks attribute's TextTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the text track 's TextTrack object.

The text track kind is determined from the state of the element's kind attribute according to the following table; for a state given in a cell of the first column, the kind is the string given in the second column:.

The text track label is the element's track label. The text track language is the element's track language , if any, or the empty string otherwise.

As the kind , label , and srclang attributes are set, changed, or removed, the text track must update accordingly, as per the definitions above.

Changes to the track URL are handled in the algorithm below. The text track readiness state is initially not loaded , and the text track mode is initially disabled.

The text track list of cues is initially empty. It is dynamically modified when the referenced file is parsed. Associated with the list are the rules for updating the text track rendering appropriate for the format in question; for WebVTT, this is the rules for updating the display of WebVTT text tracks.

When a track element's parent element changes and the new parent is a media element , then the user agent must add the track element's corresponding text track to the media element 's list of text tracks , and then queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named addtrack at the media element 's textTracks attribute's TextTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the text track 's TextTrack object.

When a track element's parent element changes and the old parent was a media element , then the user agent must remove the track element's corresponding text track from the media element 's list of text tracks , and then queue a media element task given the media element to fire an event named removetrack at the media element 's textTracks attribute's TextTrackList object, using TrackEvent , with the track attribute initialized to the text track 's TextTrack object.

When a text track corresponding to a track element is added to a media element 's list of text tracks , the user agent must queue a media element task given the media element to run the following steps for the media element :.

If the element's blocked-on-parser flag is true, then return. If the element's did-perform-automatic-track-selection flag is true, then return.

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